Krasinsky Vladislav - Doctor of Law. Assistant professor. Deputy Chief of Staff of the Antiterrorist Commission of the Moscow Region. Deputy Head of the Department for Interaction in the Sphere of Counter-Terrorism Activities and Countering Extremism of the Moscow Region GURB. Member of the expert group on international anti-extremist cooperation with the Russian Foreign Ministry.
Mashko Vladislav - Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Russian State University for the Humanities.
Damaskin O.V., Doctor of Law, Professor, Honored Lawyer of the Russian Federation
Aleshin V.V., Doctor of Law, Professor
Krasinsky V.V., Mashko V.V. Who is who in international terrorism: reference book. M .: INFRA-M, 2018.
The handbook contains of information on international terrorist organizations "Al-Qaida", "Islamic State", "Jabhat-an-Nusra", "Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan", "Taliban" banned in the Russian Federation, "Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami", "Union of Islamic Jihad", "Jund al-Sham", "Muslim Brotherhood" and international religious extremist association "Tablighi Jamaat". The authors considered the most well-known and combat-ready terrorist organizations, disclosed their operational potential, doctrinal guidelines, organization and tactics of activity, their role and place in international terrorist structures. The book is intended for law enforcement officers, research fund analysts, political scientists and media representatives, as well as for a wide range of readers and experts interested in pressing issues of countering international terrorism.
@ В.В. Krasinsky, V.V. Mashko
SECTION 1. International Terrorist Organization "Al-Qaeda"
1.1. History of the organization
1.2. Purpose and objectives of the organization
1.3. Organization and tactics
1.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
1.5. The main leaders and ideologists
1.6. The most famous terrorist actions
SECTION 2. International terrorist organization "Islamic State"
2.1. History of the organization
2.2. The purpose and objectives of the organization
2.3. Organization and tactics
2.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
2.5. The main leaders and ideologists
2.6. The most famous terrorist actions
SECTION 3. International terrorist organization "Jabhat-an-Nusra"
3.1. History of the organization
3.2. Purpose and objectives of the organization
3.3. Organization and tactics
3.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
3.5. The main leaders and ideologists
3.6. The most famous terrorist actions
SECTION 4. International terrorist organization "Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan"
4.1. History of the organization
4.2. Goal and objectives of the movement
4.3. Organization and tactics
4.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
4.5. The main leaders and ideologists
4.6. The most famous terrorist actions
SECTION 5. International terrorist movement "Taliban"
5.1. History of the movement
5.2. Goal and objectives of the movement
5.3. Organization and tactics of the activities of the logistics department
5.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
5.5. The main leaders and ideologists
5.6. The most famous terrorist actions
SECTION 6. International terrorist organization "Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami" ("Party of Islamic Liberation")
6.1. History of the organization
6.2. Purpose and objectives of the organization
6.3. Organization and tactics
6.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
6.5. The main leaders and ideologists
6.6. The most famous terrorist actions
SECTION 7. International terrorist organization "Union of Islamic Jihad"
7.1. History of the organization
7.2. Purpose and objectives of the organization
7.3. Organization and tactics
7.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
7.5. The main leaders and ideologists
7.6. The most famous terrorist actions
SECTION 8. International terrorist organization "Jund Al-Sham"
8.1. History of the organization
8.2. Purpose and objectives of the organization
8.3. Organization and tactics of the activities
8.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
8.5. The main leaders and ideologists
8.6. The most famous terrorist actions
SECTION 9. International terrorist organization "Muslim Brotherhood"
9.1. History of the organization
9.2. The purpose and objectives of the organization
9.3. Organization and tactics
9.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
9.5. The main leaders and ideologists
9.6. The most famous terrorist actions
SECTION 10. International Religious-Extremist Association "Tablighi Jamaat"
10.1. History of the Association
10.2. The purpose and objectives of the association
10.3. Organization and tactics
10.4. Interaction with terrorist structures
10.5. The most famous terrorist actions
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
APZ - Afghan-Pakistani zone
MENA - region of the Middle East and North Africa
UAV - unmanned aerial vehicle
JAN - "Jabhat al-Nusra" (now "Tahrir al-Sham")
DTA - diversionally - the terrorist act
ISIS - the Islamic State
IMU - the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.
KSA - the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
ITO - international terrorist organization.
IREA - international religious extremist association
UAE - the United Arab Emirates
UIJ - The Union of Islamic Jihad (also the Jamaat al-Jihad al-Islami, the Islamic Jihad Group, the Islamic Jihad Union, the Islamic Jihad Union, the Jamaat al-Jihad, the Jamaat of the Mujahideen Central Asia)
USSR – the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics
The United States – the United States of America
TD - Tablighi Jamaat (also"Jamaat-at-Tablig","Jamiat-e-Tablig","Dawat-ut-Tablig"," Harakati table","Sozmoni Tabligot","The Panel of the Notification of the Judgment Day","Jamiat-i-Tabligh")
HT - Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islamy
CAR - the Central Asian region
CIA - Central Intelligence control
SEA - the Southeast Asia region
Dedicated to employees of anti-terrorist units
Despite the change of forms and methods of terrorist activities, the emergence of new technologies and tools of terror, international terrorist organizations (hereinafter - the ITO) still remain the main ideological inspirer, organizer and executor of the terrorism.
It is the ITO, the religious extremist structures affiliated with them and the auxiliary networks that conduct active propaganda and recruiting activities to recruit new members, commit the most resonant grave crimes and coordinate terrorist activities on a regional and global scale.
Each terrorist organization has some specificity that is related to its management, structural structure, tactics of activity, training of militants and technical specialists, resource support, the use of methods of conspiracy and means of camouflaging terrorist activities.
This information and analytical reference book attempts to classify the most famous and efficient terrorist organizations, to reveal their operational potential, organization and tactics of activity, to show their specific role and place in the conglomerate of international terrorist structures and the system of global terrorist activities.
The handbook contains information on international terrorist organizations such as Al-Qaida, Islamic State, Jabhat al-Nusra, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, Taliban, Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami, Islamic Union jihad, Jund al-Sham, the Muslim Brotherhood and the international religious extremist association "Tablighi Jamaat" (hereinafter referred to as "IREA").
The choice of terrorist structures examined in the directory was conditioned by the following criteria:
- a high degree of public danger of these organizations, which create by their activities the possibility of inflicting damage to the security of the Russian Federation and neighboring allied states of Russia;
- established "traditions" of terrorist and extremist activities, significant experience in the preparation and execution of terrorist acts, assistance and support of terrorist activities;
- legendized support of foreign intelligence services and other state bodies, foreign non-governmental organizations and charitable foundations named by the ITO and IREA;
- affiliation with organizations recognized by the international community as terrorist;
- inclusion in certain lists of terrorist organizations (the Russian national list of terrorist organizations, the list of the US State Department, the list of the EU, etc.).
In the framework of the characteristics of individual ITO, the authors sought to focus on ideological attitudes, the causal complex and threatening factors that determine the terrorist activity of the selected structures, as well as changes in the tactics of terrorist activities (new forms and methods of criminal activity, unusual organizational and tactical methods, improvement of measures of conspiracy when preparing and carrying out terrorist acts).
The empirical base of the work was international and national lists of terrorist organizations, judicial decisions on recognizing organizations as terrorist and extremist, analytical materials of Russian and foreign experts on the issues of countering terrorism and extremism, published reports and speeches of the heads of special services and law enforcement agencies, statistics of the National Antiterrorist Committee and so on.
The book provides a description of the ITO as of February 2018 in connection with the wire Russia's VKS anti-terrorist operation in the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic and the actions of the anti-terrorist coalition in Iraq, the relevance of some of the above estimates can be revised.
The authors expect that the study of the handbook will allow readers to clarify the characteristics of modern international terrorist groups, the nature and historical context of their origin and development, understand the techniques, forms and methods of criminal activity characteristic for them, and get acquainted with the basic doctrinal attitudes of odious leaders and ideologists of terrorists.
The work is focused not only on law enforcement officers, research fund analysts, political scientists and media representatives, but also on a wide range of readers interested in pressing issues of countering international terrorism.
SECTION I. INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION "AL-QAEDA"
ITO Al-Qaeda is one of the most famous and numerous terrorist organization. In Arabic, the name of the organization means "base" and "platform". Al-Qaeda accounts for a number of major terrorist attacks, including the largest in terms of the number of victims in the history of mankind - the September 11, 2001 attack of "twin towers" in the United States.
The activities of Al-Qaeda in the territory of the Russian Federation were banned by the decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of February 14, 2003 No. GKPI 03 116.
Fig. 1. "The Black Flag of Jihad" used by the militants of the ITO "Al-Qaeda"
Fig. 2. Al Qaeda Flag in the Arabian Peninsula
History of the Organization
The origins of Al-Qaida's appearance are related to the US attempt to influence the development of the military and political situation in Afghanistan after the entry of a limited contingent of Soviet troops into the country. In an effort to weaken the Soviet Union's position in Afghanistan, the US provided comprehensive support to radical Islamist organizations that participated in the struggle by Soviet troops. Among them was the organization "Maktab-al-Hidamat", engaged in the training and dispatch of foreign militants to Afghanistan, which was established in 1984 with the direct participation of Osama bin Laden - later the leader and ideological mastermind of Al-Qaeda.
The decision to create Al-Qaeda was made on August 11, 1988 in Peshawar, Pakistan, at a meeting of the leaders of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad and aimed to organize assistance to the mujahideen in Afghanistan. Active participation in the creation of Al-Qaeda in addition to bin Laden, took: Abdullah Azzam, Hafiz Mohammad Saeed, Ayman al-Zawahiri. Initially, bin Laden was assigned a special role in Al-Qaeda - he solved both organizational and financial issues, sponsoring the activities of Al-Qaeda at his own expense.
After the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, Bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia.
In August 1990, after the occupation of Kuwait by Iraqi forces, Bin Laden invited the King of Saudi Arabia Fahd to transfer Mujahideen from Afghanistan to the country to protect him from possible aggression from Iraq. However, the king rejected the proposal, preferring to get help from the United States. The deployment of US troops on the Arabian peninsula - "land of two mosques" Bin Laden found offensive to Muslims and sharply criticized this decision. After bin Laden's statement, Saudi Arabia's authorities expelled him from the country.
In 1991, Bin Laden and his supporters, at the invitation of the ideologue of Islamism, Hassan Turabi, moved to Sudan. The Islamic government of the Sudan led by Omar al-Bashir actively cooperated with the organization of bin Laden and in exchange for assistance in the ongoing war with African Christian separatists in Southern Sudan allowed him to create camps in the country to train militants. In addition to this, Bin Laden has established numerous enterprises, invested in industry, road construction, the banking sector of the Sudan, which allowed to obtain substantial legal income and to finance international terrorist activities.
Bin Laden used the period of deployment of the organization in Sudan to create cells and structural subdivisions of Al-Qaeda in various regions of the world. Al-Qaeda actively supported and provided all-round material, technical and financial assistance to militants in Algeria, Bosnia, Chechnya, Kashmir, Tajikistan (during the civil war), Yemen, Afghanistan. To coordinate the links between the radical Islamic groups, a governing body, the Shura, was created.
In May 1996, the Sudanese authorities under the influence of real terrorist threats emanating from the activities of "jihadist" organizations and Al-Qaida itself decided to deport Osama bin Laden from the country.
In 1996 - 2001 the leadership of Al-Qaeda was in Afghanistan, where the organization set up training camps for the training of militants, the largest of which was Al-Farooq.
In August 1996, Bin Laden issued a fatwah "Declaration of Jihad, "in which he called on Muslims to fight the presence of US forces on the Arabian Peninsula, sharply criticized the royal family of Saudi Arabia as the main conductor of US policy in the Arab world, the need to resist "Jews" and "crusaders".
In 1996, Al-Qaeda helped the Taliban to capture Kabul, after which new training camps of Islamists appeared on the territory of Afghanistan.
In 1998, Bin Laden announced plans to attack servicemen and civilians with US citizenship anywhere in the world.
The active struggle of the international community with Al Qaeda began in August 1998 after the terrorists of the ITO carried out two coordinated acts of terrorism from the US embassies in Nairobi (Kenya) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), which killed more 300 people. In response to the terrorist attacks, the US armed forces fired several Al-Qaida camps in Afghanistan with cruise missiles and bombed a pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum, Sudan, where terrorists were working to build chemical weapons.
The terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, helped to activate the activity of terrorist groups affiliated with Al-Qaeda in various regions of the world. Its numerous branches participated and were accused of organizing terrorist acts in Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Indonesia, Morocco, Turkey, Spain, Egypt and Iraq and other countries. The US response to these events was the "declaration of war" to international terrorism in the person of Al Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, the territory of which at that time became the main base of the international terrorism.
After the US invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, al-Qaida's organizational and managerial capabilities and terrorist capabilities were significantly weakened.
The purpose and objectives of the organization
The aim of the organization is to overthrow secular regimes in Muslim countries, the establishment of Sharia in them, and in the future - the creation of a global caliphate.
"Al-Qaeda" stands on radical anti-Western positions and views the US as "the main enemy of Islam," which was reflected in several bin Laden fatwa.
The main tasks of Al-Qaeda at the present stage can be considered the maintenance of sustainable resource, personnel and infrastructure support for the logistics and the restoration of the leading position in the conglomerate of international terrorist structures.
Organization and tactics of the ITO
Osama bin Laden (also known as "Mujahideen", "Abu Abdullah", "Hajj", "Director") was the emir of the organization for many years until his death in 2011.
Before the invasion of the US Army in Afghanistan, the supreme governing body of Al-Qaeda was the Shura (council), which included representatives of all the factions that were part of the ITO. The management of the logistics organization was organized in the form of four committees: on military affairs, finance, religion and law, information and propaganda.
The functions of the military committee included: conducting military operations; recruitment, training and supply of militants; planning and preparation of terrorist acts; distribution of weapons and material and technical means, etc. The
Finance Committee was responsible for the allocation of financial resources and the development of financing channels for the organization.
The Religious Committee exercised oversight functions in the field of observance and dissemination of Shariah norms.
The Information Committee functioned as an information and propaganda activity. It is noteworthy that the European "public relations office with the public" functioned in London until 1998, until the British police arrested his steward, Caled Al Fawwaz, in connection with the bombing of US embassies in Nairobi and Tanzania.
The organizational structure of Al-Qaeda, which existed before the US invasion of Afghanistan and was built largely under the management of training camps and bases on a "jihadist" controlled territory, could not adapt to the changed military and political conditions, which led to a weakening of the organizational ties between groupings, which included Al-Qaida, and the decentralization of the management of the ITO.
At present, Al-Qaeda is unable to reproduce the previously existing system for the management and coordination of terrorist activities. The current structure of the ITO is largely fragmented.
The most capable terrorist groups that (from the ideological point of view) refer themselves to Al-Qaeda are:
-"Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula", operating in the territory of Yemen and in part Saudi Arabia. The organization was established in 2009 with the merger of Saudi and Yemeni "jihadist" groups;
-"Al-Qaeda" in the Islamic Maghreb countries " ("Salafi group of preaching and jihad"), acting in Algeria and committing terrorist acts in the Maghreb countries. On September 11, 2006, Ayman al-Zawahiri announced that "The Salafi group of preaching and jihad" has joined the organization of Al-Qaida ... let it be a bone in the throat of American and French crusaders and their allies, and sow fear in the hearts of French traitors and the sons of traitors";
- "Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent";
- "Al-Qaeda in Palestine";
- "Al Qaeda in Somalia."
There is no single strategy for al-Qaeda militants at present. The tactics of the groupings included in its structure include: the implementation of terrorist acts, the conduct of guerrilla warfare, and active information and propaganda activities to solve regional problems.
The classic version of the al-Qaida tactical model of the terrorist activity "Thousand Bites" provided for a wide range of objects of terrorist aspirations of the ITO (transport infrastructure objects, places of mass stay of people, objects of security and law enforcement agencies, health and cultural institutions, places of worship, etc.) and simultaneous implementation of coordinated DTA.
. Interaction with other terrorist structures
Al-Qaeda actively interacted with Islamist and terrorist groups, including: the Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan, the Islamic Revolution Movement of Afghanistan, Lashkar i-Taiba, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi", "Islamic Party of Afghanistan", " Hamas ", " Islamic Front for the Liberation of Moreau", " Caucasus Emirate", etc.
Al-Qaeda received certain assistance from foreign special services at various times. In particular, the ITO provided organizational, informational and financial assistance to the ITO: "Pakistan's Interdepartmental Intelligence", Iran's IRGC, the intelligence services of Iraq, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as selected politicians in the KSA, UAE, Qatar, Pakistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Congo.
The main leaders and ideologists of the ITO
Osama bin Laden, was the most famous leader (emir) of the organization until its liquidation in May 2011. After Bin Laden's death, the leader of the ITO was Az-Zavahiri, who replaced Saif al-Adel, the interim leader of al-Qaida.
Ayman Mohammed Rabbi Az-Zawahiri was born on June 19, 1951 in Cairo in the family of a professor. In 1974 he graduated from the Medical Faculty of Cairo University, majoring in "surgery". In the 1970s, Az-Zavahiri became one of the active participants in the terrorist group Islamic Jihad. In the summer of 1980, he traveled to Pakistan, where he worked for three months with the Red Crescent Society. From Pakistan, Az-Zavahiri traveled to war-torn Afghanistan to see the fighting with his own eyes.
In 1981, he was arrested and imprisoned for three years for complicity in the assassination of President A. Sadat. He was charged with illegal possession of firearms. After serving his sentence, Az-Zavahiri went to fight in Afghanistan. After the creation of Al-Qaeda, Az-Zavahiri joined Shura as a representative of the Egyptian "jihadists".
In 1994, Az-Zavahiri was deported from Sudan, after which he visited a number of states, including Russia, where he was arrested and spent five months in pre-trial detention center No. 1 in Makhachkala. In April 1997, Az-Zavahiri was sentenced to six months in prison.
Since 2011, Az-Zavahiri has headed Al-Qaeda.
In 2012, Az-Zavahiri issued an address in which he called on Muslims around the world to wage a holy war against the US and Israel in revenge for the film "Innocence of Muslims", "insulting the Prophet Muhammad" and supported the Islamists who attacked the US embassies in Cairo and the consulate The USA in Benghazi.
Saif Al-Adel (Mohammed Salah al-Din Zaydan) is a high-ranking member of Al-Qaeda, a member of the military committee and Shura.
Al-Adel was born on April 11, 1960 (according to other sources - 1963) in Egypt. He was a colonel of the Egyptian army.
In 1987, Al-Adel was accused by the Egyptian authorities of trying to overthrow the Egyptian government. In 1988, after the charges were dropped, he left for Afghanistan, where he joined the Mujahideen who participated in the struggle against Soviet troops.
In Al-Qaeda, he was an explosives expert, carried out military and intelligence training for al-Qaeda members in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sudan and Somalia. He created an Al-Qaeda training center in Somalia.
Al-Adel was one of Bin Laden's closest people and was responsible for planning and carrying out al-Qaeda's military operations. He is suspected of preparing explosions from the American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998.
It is believed that Al-Adel was an opponent of the attacks of September 11, 2001.
Abdelmalek Droukdel is the leader of the ITO "Al-Qaeda" "in the countries of the Islamic Maghreb". He was born on April 20, 1970 in Algiers. Participated in terrorist activities in Afghanistan. Then he returned to Algeria and joined the "Salafi group of preaching and jihad". In 2004, after the death of the leader of the group, Nabil Sahrawi was headed by the ITO.
In September 2006, the Salafi Sermon and Jihad Group merged with Al-Qaida, and in January 2007 changed its name to Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb. Drukdel as the leader of the organization began to pursue an independent policy and from the end of 2012 distanced himself from Al-Qaeda.
In recent years, Al Qaeda has lost a number of influential leaders. So, the second person in the organization, Atia Abd al-Rahman, was killed in Pakistan, which was reported on June 5, 2012 by Pakistani intelligence officers. On February 25, 2013, was liquidated in the north of Mali Abdelhamid Abu Zeid, a field commander who led the Tarik ibn Ziyad,. By 2010, he became one of the three main field commanders of al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb countries. "It is believed that he was responsible for the murder of the British hostage E. Dier in 2009 and the Frenchman M. Germano in July 2010. In 2011, was killed Anvar al-Awlaki, a radical Islamic preacher, one of the ideologists of al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula. In June 2015, as a result of the US air strike, the leader of Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula, Nasir Al-Wuhaishi, was killed.
The most famous terrorist actions
One of the first major terrorist acts committed by Al-Qaeda was the August 7, 1998 bombing of US embassies in the capitals of Tanzania (Dar es Salaam) and Kenya (Nairobi). In total, during the explosions, 224 people died, including 12 US citizens. After the bombings of the embassies, the leader of Al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, was on the list of the ten most wanted FBI criminals and was nicknamed "terrorist No. 1".
On October 12, 2000, at the port of Aden (Yemen), Al Qaeda terrorists bombed US DDG 67 Cole, which carried out missions as part of the US Navy's multipurpose carrier group. The ship was squashed by a patrol boat stuffed with explosives. A charge of 8 tons of TNT made a hole in the board with a size of 12 sq.m. Seventeen seamen of the US Navy were killed, 39 team members were injured of varying severity.
The most resonant terrorist act of al-Qaeda was a series of terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Two passenger aircraft hijacked by terrorists crashed into the World Trade Center buildings in New York, completely destroying them. The third aircraft crashed into the west wing of the Defense Ministry building in Washington. The fourth liner, hijacked by terrorists, crashed near the city of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania). According to official data, 2749 people from 80 countries of the world died in New York, 189 people in Washington, 44 people in Pennsylvania. During the fire fighting in the World Trade Center, 343 firefighters were killed. The total number of deaths on September 11, 2001 was more than 3000 people, about 6000 were wounded. In September 2006, US President George W. Bush announced that the damage caused by the attacks amounted to 500 billion US dollars.
On 9 November 2003, in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), as a result of a series of bombings organized by Al Qaeda, 10 villas were destroyed. 18 people died, more than 120 were injured. Among the victims were citizens of more than 10 countries.
On November 20, 2003, five self-made bombs were blown up in Istanbul. As a result of the terrorist attacks, 28 people were killed and 450 people were injured.
March 11, 2004 Al-Qaeda conducted a series of explosions in suburban trains in Madrid at the Atocha railway station. 192 people were killed and about 2000 people were injured. Terrorist acts became the largest in the history of Spain.
On May 29, 2004, in the Saudi city of Al Khobar, a group of Al-Qaeda terrorists attacked the Al-Waha residential complex (the Oasis), offices of several oil companies, and seized hostages. As a result of the terrorist attack, 22 people were killed, 25 were injured.
On July 7, 2005, al Qaeda supporters carried out four coordinated bombings in three subway cars and a bus in central London, killing 54 people and injuring 700 people.
On December 27, 2007, members of Al-Qaeda committed the murder of Benazir Bhutto.
In 2015, "Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula" claimed responsibility for the terrorist act in the editorial office of Charlie Hebdo, carried out on January 7, 2015 in Paris. As a result of the terrorist attack, 12 people were killed. About involvement in the incident, in addition to "Al-Qaida" in the Arabian Peninsula, representatives of ISIS said.
SECTION 2. INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION "ISLAMIC STATE"
It is a hyper-terrorist structure, claiming control over the world Muslim ummah, with elements of quasi-statehood.
In the Russian Federation, the activities of the ITO "Islamic State" (hereinafter - "ISIS") are prohibited in accordance with the decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of December 29, 2014 No. AKPI14-1424S.
2.1. History of the organization
Despite the fact that ITO "ISIS" among terrorist structures is a relatively "young" organization, it has a long history.
The first stage of formation of the organization is connected with the activities of the international terrorist, Jordanian by origin - Abu Musaba al-Zarqawi.
Az-Zarqawi started his terrorist activities in Afghanistan. After returning to Jordan, he served seven years in prison for subversive activities against the Jordanian king. After leaving in 1999, al-Zarqawi, with the aim of changing the political regime in the country and building an "Islamic state" there, created a terrorist group "Jamaat at-Tawhid Wal-Jihad" (Jamaat of monotheism and jihad). In 2001, he took a direct part in the creation of the terrorist group "Ansar al-Islam", operating in Iraqi Kurdistan and in the Sunni regions of Iraq.
Az-Zarqawi received a wide popularity in 2003 because of the speech of US Secretary of State Colin Powell at the meeting of the UN Security Council, who in his discussions about threats to the world community from Iraq and his possession of weapons of mass destruction stated that S. Hussein's regime is connected with the ITO Al-Qaeda through the terrorist Abu Musaba al-Zarqawi.
After the invasion in 2003 of coalition forces led by the United States to Iraq, Jamaat at-Tawhid Wal-Jihad has turned into a ramified terrorist structure with foreign militants in its ranks, whose goal was to overthrow the transitional government and the formation of an "Islamic state." Similar goals were pursued by the terrorist group Ansar al-Islam. It is important to mention that already at that time the militants "Jamaat at-Tawhid Wal-Jihad"to have carried out terrorist acts and conducted combat operations actively used a so-called "shahid mobiles", and to intimidate their opponents - to post video on the Internet with the executions of hostages.
It should be noted that the continuity of terrorist organizations "Jamaat at-Tawhid Wal-Jihad" and "Islamic State" is also traced in their symbolism (Figure 3).
Fig. 3. Flags of terrorist organizations: Jamaat at-Tawhid Wal-Jihad, Al Qaeda in Iraq and the Islamic State
In October 2004, Az-Zarqawi swore allegiance to Osama bin Laden and renamed his organization in Al-Qaida in Iraq. "
During this period, the former soldiers of the army of S. Hussein and members of the banned Baath party, who formed the organizational basis for resistance to the new Iraqi authorities, actively joined the ranks of the remaining inactivity in connection with the change of the ruling regime in Iraq.
In 2006, with the direct participation of Al-Qaeda with the help of international terrorist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, a "Consultative Assembly of Mujahideen" ("Majlis Shura al-Mujahideen") was formed in Iraq, which included eight Sunni Islamist insurgent groups, including Al Qaeda in Iraq.
The death of az-Zarqawi in June 2006 marked a new stage in the formation of the terrorist organization. After his death, the new leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq was Abu Ayyub al-Masri. This stage was marked by the creation in October 2006 of the "Consultative Assembly of the Mujahideen" (without coordination with the leadership of Al-Qaeda) of the "Islamic State of Iraq" (hereinafter referred to as the "ISI"), which included 8 provinces (Baghdad, Anbar, Diyala, Kirkuk, Salah-ed-Din, Ninewa and part of the provinces of Babil and Wasit), with the "capital" in the Iraqi city of Baquba.
Emir of the Institute was elected Hamid Davud Muhammad Khalil al-Zawi, better known under the pseudonym Abu Umar al-Baghdadi. However, there was no complete gap between the ISI and Al-Qaida in Iraq at that time. Thus, after the death of Abu Ayyub al-Masri terrorist organization Al-Qaeda in Iraq in 2010, Abu Suleiman al-Nasir was also the "military minister" in the ISI.
After the death of Abu Umar al-Baghdadi in the same year of 2010, Abubecame the new ISI emir Bakr al-Baghdadi (real name - Ibrahim Ali Avvad Muhammad al-Badri), who in 2003 took part in the creation of the terrorist group "Jamaat Jaysh Aigl Sunnah Wal Jama'a, in which he headed the "Shariah Committee".
It should be noted that in the biography of Abu Umar al-Baghdadi, who heads the ITO at the moment, there are many "white" spots. For example, there is no doubt that he was a suspect in extremist activity in the American filtration (and actually - concentration) camp "Bukka", but if, according to "official" information, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was detained in the camp from February to December 2004, according to Colonel Kenneth King, commander of the Bucca camp, he was there until the summer of 2009, and was then transferred to a small camp near Baghdad, from where he was released. There is a version that Al-Baghdadi was transferred to Bukka after spending some time in Abu Ghraib prison.
Supporters of "conspiracy" versions consider the fact of Al-Baghdadi's imprisonment as a controlled situation for his recruitment as an agent of the US special services (Israel). Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, by his qualities, like anyone else, approached the role of agent-he possessed pragmatic thinking, high stress-resistance, organizational abilities, and easily established contacts and earned confidence in himself. The elimination of the terrorists of Abu Ayyub al-Masri and Abu Umar al-Baghdadi in 2010 is associated with the need for further "promotion" of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi to the leadership of the ITO. It is noted that in connection with the withdrawal of US troops from Iraq, US special services during this period were interested in providing a control effect on terrorist groups operating in the region to redirect their terrorist aspirations in the interests of the United States.
In 2013, the rebels of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi entered a civil war in Syria against the regime of B. Assad, and the IHI changed its name to the "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" (hereinafter - ISIS).
In early 2014, the ISIS militants launched a successful offensive in Iraq, as a result of which they managed to capture Fallujah and Ramadi cities, and in June 2014 - Mosul. The relative ease of their victories was associated with the support of the Sunni population of Iraq, who was de facto suspended from governing the country (Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki "gave away" virtually all the leading positions in the state of Shiites).
At the end of June 2014, ISIS announced the creation of its own state, the "Caliphate", stretching from the city of Aleppo in northern Syria to the province of Diyala in the east of Iraq, and abandoned the geographic linkage in its name, replacing it with the "Islamic state". These events marked the beginning of the next stage in the history of the terrorist organization.
Since that time ITO "ISIS" increasingly becomes the center of attraction and the recognized leader of the "anti-Western" part of the Islamic world, speaking for Islamic radicals as a fighter for justice, restoring historical Arab identity. In the controlled territories, the militants tried to ensure the appearance of stability, order and social justice, which contributed to the support of the ITO from the Sunni population of Syria and Iraq.
In 2015-2017 years. after the beginning of the military operation of the Russian military space station against the ITO, at the request of the Syrian government, ISIS lost more than 90% of the previously controlled territories in Syria. In 2017 the forces of the international western coalition in Iraq liberated Mr. Rakku.
2.2. Goals and tasks of the ITO "ISIS"
According to the statements of the leaders of the ITO "ISIS", the main goal of the organization is to overthrow secular regimes in Islamic countries and build a "Great Islamic Caliphate" - a state based on the Sharia system of government.
The reconstruction of the "Caliphate" - led by the "caliphs", which unite the unlimited higher spiritual and secular power, has long been the goal of Islamists in many countries of the world.
Speculating on the feeling of religious solidarity and historical memory of Muslims, the leaders of ISIS emphasize that their armed struggle restores historical justice.
A distinctive feature of the ideology of ISIS is the wide application of the Takfir Institute - accusations of disbelief. In the opinion of Islamologists, this doctrine unites the adherents of the "Islamic state" and the early Kharijites who declared war to all dissenters. The ideology used is a kind of pseudo-Islamic neoharidzhizm.
At the same time, the "jihadists" claim that they are building a system of state administration on the model of the caliphate that existed during the "four righteous caliphs" (632-661). It is this period in the development of the Islamic world, in their opinion, is an example for imitation.
In 2014, a map of the future borders of the Caliphate was posted on the Internet resources of ISIS. The ITO planned to include in the "Caliphate" not only the territory of the former Arab Caliphate, but also a number of Balkan states, Austria, vast areas in the Middle East, Central Africa and Asia.
At the same time, among the militants of ISIS there are contradictions between the so-called "statesmen" and supporters of "total external expansion".
Supporters of the "state" approach, represented by former Baathists, officers of the armed forces, officials of the period of S. Hussein's rule, as well as representatives of the tribes, believe that the priority task is to keep the controlled territories.
Their opponents are, for the most part, foreign "jihadists" who believe that it is necessary to adhere to offensive tactics and try to spread Islam to all Muslim, and subsequently non-Muslim countries, including them in the "Caliphate".
It should be noted that the goals publicly declared by the leaders of ISIS and their supporters are far from the true aims of the leadership of the terrorist structure, which are directly dependent on the development of the military-political situation in Syria and Iraq.
Beginning in 2017, the analysis of the situation shows a steady decline in the military potential of the ITO and the loss of control over the territories by the militants, including the predominant Sunni population.
2.3. Organization and tactics of the activities of the ITO
The goals pursued by the ITO «ISIS» largely determine its organizational structure. In recent years there has been a transformation of the organizational core of the ITU «ISIS» into an administrative bureaucratic apparatus. A ramified system of executive power was established on the territory controlled by Islamists.
At the head of ISIS was the "Caliph" (supreme commander-in-chief), to which two of his representatives were subordinate: one responsible for the Iraqi part of the territory (the representative of the Caliph in Iraq), the other for the Syrian (the representative of the Caliph in Syria). 4).
Fig. 4. Structure of the management bodies of ISIS
Each representative of the "Caliph" led the governors of the regions, who in turn coordinated the activities of local councils for the execution of decrees of the executive branch of power.
In making decisions, the "Caliph" consulted with his advisers. The highest advisory body in the "Caliphate" was Shura Council, engaged in religious and military affairs. The council was appointed directly by the "Caliph" and ensured the implementation by local councils of "Islamic law" in the territory controlled by the militants. At the same time, the Council of Shura had the right to displace the "Caliph" from his post in case he violated the laws of the ITO «ISIS».
The Cabinet of the "Caliph" advisers included:
The Governing Council, responsible for passing laws and preparing the most important political decisions (these decisions are subject to approval by the "Caliph").
The Military Council, dealt with the supply and defense of the territories of the "Islamic State".
The Security Council, ensured the maintenance of law and ordered in the controlled territories and the protection of the borders of the ISIS.
The Intelligence Council was responsible for gathering information about the opponents of the "Islamic state".
The Financial Board dealt with financial issues related to the functioning of the "Islamic state" including the sale of oil, the conclusion of deals on the purchase of weapons and etc.
The Council for Assistance to Mujahideen, coordinated the transfer of foreign militants to the territories controlled by Islamists.
The Media Council, which was responsible for outreach activities in the organization.
The Legal Council dealt with issues of family law and religious violations.
The structure of higher and local executive bodies periodically changed.
At the central level, the councils were subordinate to the "caliph". At the local level, similar councils were subordinate to the Caliph's assistants in Iraq and Syria.
In most of the territories controlled by the ITO «ISIS» administrative bodies were established.
The administrative-territorial units of the caliphate were the vilayats. Such a division of the territory is conditioned by the need for exercising the powers and functions of state administration on the ground.
In military terms, the territory of Syria was conditionally divided into sectors in which military groups consisted of 100 to 100 troops ("katibs"). The units were divided into groups of 12-20 people. In addition to this, the detachments had small groups (of 5-7 people) - snipers, grenade launchers, suicide bombers (fidaev).
The most important element of the organizational structure of ISIS was the Security Service ("amanat"), whose functions included filtering activities among recruits and militants, as well as ensuring the security of the caliphate.
From the point of view of the management system, ISIS was a synthesis of an army type structure and a terrorist organization. This control mechanism is formed as a result of the fact that the organization has united in its composition:
a) followers of "Naqshbandi Tariqa" considered close to General Izzat ad-Duri - the closest aide to the former head of Iraq, S. Hussein. The operational zone of action is in the provinces of Ninewa and Kirkuk;
b) supporters of the "High Command of Jihad and Freedom". This organization was created by former Baathists in October 2007 and included more than 20 factions;
c) former officers of the armed forces and special services S. Hussein. This category of ex-servicemen was the command nucleus of the terrorist structure;
d) members of radical Sunni groups. In particular, from the so-called "Council of the Tribes" (uniting more than 70 Arab Sunni tribes), armed detachments operating in the cities of Ramadi, Khalidiya, Karama, Fallujah, in the provinces of Anbar, Ninawa, Salaheddin and Dale were established;
e) foreign volunteers inclined to use the most severe forms of violence.
Thus, the gradual transformation of the organizational structure of ISIS led to the formation of quasi-state administrative and bureaucratic governing bodies in the territories controlled by militants.
The social base of ISIS was former officers of the armed forces and special services of Iraq from the environment of S. Hussein, as well as Sunni radicals.
Organizational structure and tactics of the activity of ISIS were largely determined by its human resources potential.
Number of professionally trained militia fighters participating in hostilities on an ongoing basis, was approximately 15 thousand people.
Proceeding from the main directions of unlawful aspirations of ISIS, the tactics of its activities seem appropriate to analyze in the following structural units:
- combat activities;
- terrorist activities;
- Recruitment and outreach activities.
The active participation of the Russian Air Force in the anti-terrorist operation in Syria and the offensive of the international coalition forces in Iraq led to radical changes in the tactics of the ISIS combat activities:
1. The militants began to disperse their forces and means, refusing to concentrate on open communications. They relocated their units from open areas to localities, dispersed heavy weapons and weapons stores.
2. Movement of detachments and equipment began to be carried out mainly at night, while in the daytime militants prefer to move in desert areas outside the roads. They abandoned large convoys, began to use more for moving motorcycles and bicycles.
3. The militants have become more active in applying measures of disguise, which seriously complicates the conduct of reconnaissance of the places of the deployment of militants. For the purposes of misinformation, members of ISIS deliberately give out houses of civilians for their positions, hang their flags over abandoned buildings, and so on.
4. Despite the presence of armored vehicles, they try to use heavy weapons, preferring mobility, so that "jihadists" manage to concentrate their forces as quickly and secretly as possible in the places of planned attacks.
The distinctive features of ISIS are still well-organized intelligence and flexibility in the choice of tactics of combat. Strong concentrated attacks militants combine with multiple small raids and subversive and terrorist acts, exhausting the enemy.
On uncontrolled or abandoned territories, a so-called Islamic State uses guerrilla warfare tactics and tries to clamp down on the forces of the government troops of Iraq and Syria.
Considering the terrorist activities of ISIS, it should be noted that the arsenal of methods used by ISIS for the commission of terrorist acts is unlimited, but in most cases it is used by suicide bombers (usually drivers of vehicles stuffed with explosives). For terrorist attacks in Iraq at extremely low altitudes, explosive-laden UAVs are involved.
In order to intimidate and demoralize its opponents, ISIS regularly conducts terrorist actions, as well as mass executions of captured soldiers, hostages and civilians.
A new trend was the involvement in the commission of terrorist acts, as well as the executions of children (12 years). At the same time, they participate in executions both as performers and as spectators.
The concept of an "autonomous" (individual) "jihad" that does not require traditional means of terror (Nice, Munich, London, Barcelona, Cambrils, Turku, etc.) is spreading.
Along with the individual fighters, the main emphasis in the new tactics of terrorist activities of ISIS is made on the mass formation of "sleeping" terrorist cells, equipped with trained terrorists with experience of fighting and committing crimes in zones of armed conflicts.
During training in the training camps for militants (the so-called "muascars") recruits are given specific tasks on direct participation in the preparation and execution of terrorist attacks after returning to the regions of exodus. To this end, they are actively trained in mine and explosives, and are trained in secret communication channels. At the same time, the awareness of these individuals about investigative activities and investigative actions against them leads to the fact that their return to their homeland is carried out in compliance with special measures of conspiracy.
An important component of the tactics of ITO «ISIS» are billing work and information and propaganda activities.
Recruitment activity underlies the maintenance of high operational potential, a high number of structural units and the accomplice networks of the "Islamic State".
The recruiting activities of the ITO are accompanied by the popularization of extremist ideology and the commission of terrorist crimes. It is associated with the propagation of religious radicalism, the heroization of the image of its supporters, the idealization of "fair" social relations, to the establishment of which terrorists seek, by promises of material goods.
Active terrorist propaganda is carried out by persons who are already taking part in the activities of ISIS. The main object of attention of recruiters is the youth.
When recruiting into a terrorist structure, recruiters use psychological characteristics of recruited persons, conditioned by their unformed worldview, superficial knowledge of religious canons and discontent with the acting authorities.
In connection with the tangible losses of the ITO after the connection of Russia to the operation against terrorists in Syria and the arrival of the coalition forces on the position of the "Islamic state" in Iraq, the terrorists are searching for a spare bridgehead for the transfer of their terrorist activity (North Africa, APZ). Characteristic for the period 2012-2015. the mass agitation for leaving for the "Caliphate" was replaced by a call to activate terrorist activities "on the ground".
Depending on the regions and countries of the world, the recruitment activity of ISIS has its own specifics. In particular, in the Southeast Asian countries, the propaganda of the ISIS is largely focused on the recruitment of young single students, juvenile delinquents and members of families of religious extremists. Joining ISIS gives these categories of citizens a sense of belonging to the "great noble cause".
The recruiters of the ITO «ISIS», as a rule, are young people under the age of 35 who have a high communicative, persuasive ability that externally strictly observe the norms of Islam.
At present, ISIS uses both active methods of involving citizens in its activities, in which its emissaries themselves identify potential candidates, carry out their verification and subsequent psychological treatment (targeted impact), and ways of passive involvement, when terrorists sympathizing with citizens try to establish contacts with the ITO on its own initiative as a result of its large-scale information and propaganda activities.
The global network is considered by the leaders of ISIS as one of the main channels for disseminating information of the control impact and propaganda of the ideas of "jihad".
The bright, regularly updated content of the supporters of the ITO «ISIS» on the Internet is the main motivating factor in the manifestation of interest in the activities of the terrorist organization by radical Muslims.
The use of modern means of telecommunications allows recruiters and curators of ISIS to select and study new participants, remotely control the actions of the recruited, form "sleeping" cells on the Internet.
Owing to the active terrorist and information propaganda activities of ISIS, the use of this new tactical methods and terror means by the organization in recent years, the following tendencies have become typical for modern terrorism:
- the geography of international terrorism expanded;
- the cross-border mobility of supporters of terrorist structures has increased;
- the internationalization of terrorism has taken place;
- the activity of autonomous terrorist cells, as well as single-player terrorists and minigroups under the influence of destructive installations of the IG «ISIS» has increased.
- information support of terrorist activity intensified.
Modern changes in the tactics of terrorists (the combination of the group organization of terrorist activities and individual "jihad", the growth in the number and expansion of the geography of the activity of "sleeping" cells, etc.) need timely flexible response from the special services and law enforcement agencies.
2.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
Coordination of terrorist activities and the inclusion of other terrorist groups in ISIS is of interest to the leadership of the "Islamic State" or if they operate in areas capable of securing the receipt of a particular resource (logistical opportunities in Libya and at Sinai, access to the "black" arms market in Yemen, etc.), or as a source of replenishment of the personnel of armed formations operating on the territory controlled by ISIS.
A new trend in 2017 was the overcoming of the confrontation between the North African cells of ISIS and the local structures of Al-Qaeda, which helped to establish interaction between them in Libya and Algeria. Currently, Libya has three "branches" of ISIS: "Islamic state in the province of Barca", "Islamic state of the province of Fezzan" and "Islamic state in Tripoli." From the territory of Libya, militants are trying to expand the area of activity of the organization to other states, as well as to create alinguistic network in the region. The commanders of the Al-Murabitun battalions - Mokhtar Belmohtar, Ansar ash-Sharia Tunisia - Safe Alla Ben Khasin and others declared their loyalty to ISIS. However, the loss of control of Sirt by the militants of the ITO «ISIS» in 2016 significantly weakened the organization's position in Libya.
There is an expansion of the positions of «ISIS» in Morocco and Jordan, against which the leaders of «ISIS» in their fatwa on Jan. 5, 2017 declared jihad.
Supported the activities of ITO «ISIS» "Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb countries."
The Nigerian terrorist organization Boko Haram also acknowledged the supremacy of ISIS». At present, Boko Haram has managed to secure its presence on Nigeria, Chad and Cameroon, bordering Nigeria and to accumulate serious potential for large-scale terrorist attacks.
"Jihadist" ideas are widely spread among the radical Islamist organizations operating in the Southeast Asian countries, primarily in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines. In these countries, there has been an increase in the number of Muslims who travel to the Middle East to take part in hostilities on the side of the IGO «ISIS», as well as providing militant support.
More than 20 terrorist structures of the region swore allegiance to ITO «ISIS» ("Group of Abu Sayafa", "Jemaah Islamiya" and etc.).
Recently, the presence of the ITO «ISIS» in India has expanded. In particular, the growth of supporters of this group was noted in western states. The total number of supporters of ISIS in the region is about 10 thousand people.
The military defeats of ISIS in the territory of Iraq and Syria make its leaders think about creating "reserve" bridgeheads in the APZ and North Africa. These actions are carried out with the support of NATO and the United States. Thus, in November 2017, 200 Iraqi fighters, who fought in Mosul, were delivered to the NATO base near the city of Jalalabad in Nangarhar province by a US military transport aircraft from Iraq to Iraq. With the help of helicopters without identification marks, the transfer of manpower and weapons is carried out. In 2017 such cases were recorded in the provinces of Jauzjan, Faryab, Sari-Pul, Ghazni, Nangarhar, Herat, Zabul.
At the same time, the Middle East theater of military operations remains a priority for ISIS, since it is the control of ITO over part of the territories of Syria and Iraq that allows it to declare the existence of the Caliphate and claim the leading position in the conglomerate of terrorist organizations.
2.5. The main leaders and ideologists of the ITO
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi al-Husseini al-Qurashi (Ibrahim Avvad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri) are the head (caliph) of the IT logistics company IG. According to most sources, Ibrahim Avvad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri was born in 1971 in a religious family in the Iraqi city of Samarra. His relatives were preachers and specialists in the field of the Arabic language, rhetoric and logic.
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi is a doctor of Sharia Sciences at the University of Adhamiya, located in the suburbs of Baghdad.
Until 2004, he lived in a mosque in Tobchi - in a poor neighborhood on the western outskirts of Baghdad. At the time of the US invasion of Iraq, al-Baghdadi, as many scholars believe, was the imam of one of the mosques. Later, he joined the rebel movement. In 2004, Al-Baghdadi was held as a suspect in the American Bucca filtration camp. Subsequently, he headed al-Qaida in Iraq, the Islamic State of Iraq, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
From June 29, 2014, Al-Baghdadi is the Caliph of the Islamic State.
In June 2017, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation reported that, at the end of May, Al-Baghdadi and about 300 militants were destroyed in Syria as a result of a Russian air strike, according to preliminary data. In July 2017, the management of the IG «ISIS» confirmed the information about the death of the leader of the IGIL.
Abu Muhammad al-Adnani (Taha Subhi Falaha) is the "spokesman" of ITO «ISIS», one of the main ideologists of the IT «ISIS», who had considerable authority in a religious extremist milieu. According to its popularity among the supporters of the ITO «ISIS» was superior to Al Baghdadi.
He was born in the Syrian city of Binnish (Idlib province). Since 2005, he began to participate in the activities of Islamist groups in Iraq, and then joined the "Islamic State of Iraq". For suspicions of terrorist activities, he was arrested by the Americans.
Since 2012, he was responsible for working with the media. With his participation, a lot of audio recordings of ITO «ISIS» were published with summaries of the events taking place in the organization and calls for the commission of terrorist acts.
With the support of the secret services, Qatar organized a terrorist act against a Russian passenger aircraft on October 31, 2015, which killed 224 people.
Al-Adnani for more than 2 years was on the American "list for liquidation." In addition, for him was announced a reward of $ 5 million
Al-Adnani was neutralized on August 30, 2016 by Russian VKS in the vicinity of the city of El-Bab.
Abi al-Hasan al-Muhajer - from 2016 to present - the "spokesman" of the logistics company «ISIS» (replaced in that post neutralized in August 2016 by Abu Muhammad al-Adnani).
Little is known about his biography. It is believed that Abi al-Hasan al-Muhajer until 2016 was one of the "warlords" of terrorists.
Widely known for his appeal "You remember what I tell you!" And calls for armed struggle against "secular Turkey" and Iran. Abi al-Hasan al-Muhajer called on the militants of the ITO fighting in Mosul not to retreat and fight to the end.
Abu Mohammad al-Shimali (Tirad al-Jarba) is the head of the "border guard service" of ISIS. He was at the forefront of the formation of the terrorist structure - since 2005 he was connected with "Al Qaeda in Iraq."
He was the head of the committee for immigration and logistical support of the IG «ISIS» and was responsible for the transit of foreign militants. Al-Shimali coordinated smuggling, financial transfers and general logistics to Syria from the countries of the European Union, North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. It is known that he was in charge of the coordination center of ITO «ISIS» for recruits in Aazaz (Syria).
At least a third of foreign fighters arrived on the territory controlled by the ITO, using the assistance of the committee headed by Abu-Muhammad Al-Shimali.
Halimov Gulmurod Salimovich - military leader ("Minister of War") ITO «ISIS».
Halimov moved to the side of the IG «ISIS» in 2015. Before that he served in the Soviet special forces and the presidential guard, he was the commander of the OMON of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Tajikistan. Within the framework of the US-Tajik cooperation from 2003 to 2008, Colonel Halimov three times passed anti-terrorist training courses organized by the US State Department, as well as training in a private military company "Blackwater".
In 2015, the General Prosecutor's Office of the Republic of Tajikistan opened a criminal case against Khalimov on the articles "high treason", "participation in a criminal group", "participation in hostilities abroad". In August 2016, the US State Department announced a reward of $ 3 million for the capture of Halimova.
On September 8, 2017, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation announced the liquidation of Khalimov and 40 militants as a result of a bomb attack by concrete bombs at the underground command post and the communications node.
Abu Lukman, the "governor" of ISIS in Rakka, is an influential figure in the hierarchy of militants, is part of the Council of Shura.
Abu Lukman was born in 1973 in the village of As Sahl in the Syrian province of Rakka. Studied jurisprudence at the University of Aleppo.
Prior to the civil war in Syria, Abu Lukman was arrested by the authorities and held in Sednaya prison (Damascus).
In early 2014, he was the chief investigator of ISIS in the province of Rakka, and in April 2014 Abu Lukman took the post of "emir" of the province of Rakka. In this capacity, he was responsible for appointing other leaders of the ITO «ISIS», he distributed foreign fighters for "katibam." The name of Abu Lukman is connected with numerous massacre of the ITO «ISIS» over prisoners and hostages.
At the end of 2014, for security reasons, he changed his name to Ali Musa Al-Shawakh.
In June 2015, he became governor of Aleppo and served as head of security in Syria.
Turks al-Binali - "supreme mufti" ITO «ISIS», an active propagandist of terrorist and religious extremist ideology.
Al-Binali was born in 1984 in Bahrain in a rich and noble family, which has close political ties with the ruling dynasty.
Prior to joining ITO «ISIS», Al-Binali was repeatedly arrested in various Arab countries for taking part in religious extremist activities.
In 2013, he joined the ITO «ISIS» and began to publish theological works that justify terrorist activities. In the works of Binali, there is an excuse for raping the enslaved Yezidi women. According to some reports, Al-Binali is the head of the research group and the "Fatwa Department" of the IT «ISIS».
Faisal Ahmad Bin Ali Az-Zahrani - as of May 2015, was the highest official of the Oil and Gas Department.
Az-Zahrat was born in 1986 in Saudi Arabia.
He joined the ranks of the ITO “ISIS” in June 2014. In July of the same year, he began to work in the "Ministry of Natural Resources", which controls oil and gas trade in the territories of the "caliphate".
As of January 2015, az-Zahrani was in charge of 5 oil fields in the province of El Baraka.
Ahmad Chataev (Ahmad Shishani, David Mayer, Elmir Seine) is one of the leaders of ISIS, who organized in 2016 a terrorist act at the Istanbul airport. He is responsible for recruiting and outreach activities with regard to the Russian-speaking population of the CIS countries.
Ahmad Chataev was born in 1980 in the village of Vedeno of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
He took part in hostilities on the side of illegal armed groups, was wounded (lost his hand), detained, released under an amnesty and granted refugee status in Austria.
On August 13, 2006, the Foreign Minister of the so-called "Chechen Republic of Ichkeria" A. Zakayev appointed Ahmad Chataev the first deputy representative of CRI in the Austrian Republic.
In February 2015, Ahmad Chataev went to Syria, where he joined the Islamists who are fighting against government forces in Syria. There he commanded a detachment consisting of people from the North Caucasus, most of which in 2015 was destroyed by aircraft of the international coalition forces during the fighting for the Kurdish city of Kobani in the north of Syria.
In October 2015, the UN recognized Ahmad Chataev as a terrorist by including him in the sanctions list of those involved in the activities of ISIS and Al Qaeda, and the UN Security Council recommended that the countries in the organization freeze its assets and ban entry. The US Treasury Department also contributed Ahmad Chataev to his sanction antiterrorist list for his connection with ISIS.
2.6. The most famous terrorist actions
On October 25, 2009, 155 people were killed because of the bombing of two cars by militants in the center of Baghdad.
On January 25, 2010, explosions were carried out in Baghdad hotels "Babylon", "Sheraton-Ishtar" and "Hamra" with the participation of suicide bombers, which resulted in the death of over 40 people.
On December 22, 2011, 14 explosive devices were launched in various neighborhoods of Baghdad. 69 people were killed, more than 185 were injured.
September 9, 2012 in 13 cities of Iraq from bombs about 100 people were killed, about 400 people were injured. In an online address, the militants of the ITO «ISIS» stated that these attacks were carried out in response to "the murders and torture of Sunni prisoners" in Shiite prisons.
On August 6, 2013, ISIS fighters executed 450 Kurdish hostages near the town of Tell Abyad in Syria.
In 2013 - 2014 years. the leaders of the IG «ISIS» focused on the military expansion of Iraq and Syria (the seizure of the cities of Ramadi and Fallujah, Rakka, Mosul, the seizure of checkpoints on the Syrian-Turkish border). The change of tactics and the transition to systemic terrorist activities in 2015 were caused by the halt of the offensive by the troops of the "caliphate" and the need to retain the territories controlled by the militants through propaganda and intimidation.
On June 1, 2015, as a result of a car bombing near the military base in the Iraqi province of Anbar, 38 members of the security forces and law and order were killed, more than 30 people were injured.
June 17, 2015 ITO «ISIS» conducted a series of explosions near mosques of husits in Sanaa (Yemen). Killed 31 people. The leadership of ISIS called these acts of terrorism "a sacred operation against Shiite lairs."
July 17, 2015 on the market in the city of Bani Saad in Iraq, a car bomb exploded with three tons of explosives. The death toll was 120 people.
July 22, 2015, 22 soldiers of the Iraqi army died as a result of the bombing of two cars with explosives in the city of Fallujah (Iraq). 24 people were injured of varying severity.
On November 13, 2015, the terrorists of the "Islamic State" attacked one of the restaurants in Paris, carried out three explosions at the stadium "Stade de France" and captured hostages at a rock concert in the theater "Bataklan". 129 people were killed.
November 20, 2015, about 10 militants swore by the Islamic state of the terrorist group Al-Murabitun attacked the Radisson Hotel in the center of the capital of Mali and seized 170 people hostage. The security forces released the hostages, but as a result of the terrorist attack, 20 people were killed.
March 22, 2016 as a result of a series of explosions at the international airport in Brussels and the subway more than 10 people were killed, 35 were injured.
On May 11, 2016, 94 people were killed and 150 injured as a result of a series of explosions in Baghdad.
July 14, 2016, a suicide bomber on a truck rammed a crowd of people on the waterfront in Nice (France). As a result of the terrorist action, 84 people were killed.
From December 31, 2016 to January 8, 2017 in Baghdad, a series of 8 terrorist attacks was organized, organized by ISIS. 118 people died, 249 - were injured.
On March 22, 2017 ISIS terrorist in a car drove into a crowd of passers-by on the Westminster Bridge in London, and then attacked a policeman with a knife. As a result of the terrorist attack, more than 10 people died.
On May 23, 2017 the militant groups "Abu Sayyaf" and the detachment "Islamic state of Lanao" controlled by the ITO carried out a raid on the city of Marawi on the island of Mindanao (Philippines). This terrorist attack was the first time that the ITO militants captured a large city with a population of more than 200,000 people outside the Middle East. According to the Philippine special services, about 600 militants participated in the attack on the city. The terrorists attacked the army garrison, seized the central hospital, the mayor's office and 2 prison corps, releasing more than 100 prisoners. After the introduction of the martial law, the government forces managed to regain control of the city. During 45 days of fighting in Maravi, 85 military and police personnel, 45 civilians were killed. More than 300 terrorists were liquidated by special forces units.
August 17, 2017 in Spain there was a series of terrorist attacks. In the center of Barcelona, the driver of the van pulled down 15 people and wounded more than 100 people. A few hours later the driver of the other van drove into a group of people in Cambrils. Seven people were injured. Two explosions in the town of Alcanar resulted in the death of one person, more than 10 injured. Responsibility for the crimes was assumed by the ITO "Islamic State".
3.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
ITO "JAN" actively interacted with the Free Syrian Army in combat operations in the territory of Syria. In exchange for rendering assistance in the course of military operations, militants of JAN received weapons and ammunition. However, subsequently, due to ideological differences, there was a gap between the two organizations, which led to local armed clashes.
At present, the ITO "JAN" is part of the "Army of Conquest" and maintains links with terrorist organizations operating both in Syria and neighboring Lebanon: "Jund al-Sham", "Fath al-Islami".
3.5. The main leaders and ideologists of the ITO
Abu Mohammed al-Jawlani (Ahmed Hussein Al-Shara'a)
The leader (emir) of the ITO "JAN" uses the name of Abu Muhammad al-Jawlani, indirectly indicating that he comes from the Golan Heights. There is very little reliable information about his biography. On December 18, 2013, Abu Muhammad al-Jawlani gave his first television interview, in which he spoke in classical Arabic with a Syrian accent, which suggests that he is of Syrian descent.
It is believed that Abu Mohammed al-Jaoulani was born in the village of Al-Rafid in the Golan Heights (Syria). After Israel's occupation of Holland heights, his family was forced to move to Damascus.
In 2003, after the US invasion of Iraq, Al-Jawlani joined the ranks of the Al Qaida and took part in the armed struggle against American troops in Iraq. He managed to become the closest associate of one of its leaders - Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi. After Al-Zarqawi was killed as a result of the US air strike in 2006, Al-Jaoulani left the territory of Iraq, and on his return was arrested by the US military and placed in the Camp Bucca filtration camp.
After his release from the camp in 2008, Al-Jawlani resumed his terrorist activities together with the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq (hereinafter - ISIS) - Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi. With the outbreak of the civil war in Syria, Al-Jawlani was appointed the head of the ISIS operation in the province of Ninewa and took an active part in the formation of her Syrian office called An-Nusra.
Al-Jawalani gained wide popularity in April 2013, when he refused to comply with Al-Baghdadi's order to unite the two terrorist organizations - JAN and ISIS within the framework of the creation of a new terrorist structure - ISIS.
In May 2013, the US State Department listed Al-Jawlani as a "particularly dangerous international terrorist", and four years later announced a $ 10 million reward for information that would facilitate his capture.
In May 2015, Al-Jawlani gave an interview (with a veiled face) to Qatar's Al-Jazeera television company, in which he called the Geneva Peace Conference a "farce", and also stated that the priority goal of the organization he headed was the fight against the regime of B. Asad, as well as the formations of Hezbollah and IGIL.
July 28, 2016, Al Jawalani's appeal to rename the ITO in "Jabhat Fatah ash-Sham" appeared. Despite the fact that Al-Jawlani stated the continuity of the course of the terrorist structure he headed, some analysts interpreted Al-Jawlani's statements as a break with Al-Qaeda, which was not even mentioned in his address.
Sheikh al-Uhraidi was the second person in the hierarchy of the ITO "JAN". He was born in 1973 in Amman (Jordan). He has a bachelor's degree in religious studies, and a master's degree in hadeethology. In 2001 he defended his doctoral dissertation. Author of a number of works on Islam and its history.
Al-Uraidi is the chief ideologue of the Sharia in the ITO "JAN" and carries out active outreach activities in social networks (in "Twitter").
Al-Uraidi actively criticized ISIS for excessive cruelty and reprisals against Muslims ("mujahideen"), and in December 2014 issued an appeal in which he declared the jihad of this terrorist organization on behalf of the ITO "JAN".
After the formation of "Tahrir Al-Sham" Al-Uraidi left the ranks of the organization along with some other leaders.
Abu Maria Al-Qahtani
The real name of Maishar Al-Juburi. He was born in the village of Harar in Iraq to a family of Sunni Syrians. He studied at the University of Mosul in Iraq and received a degree in management.
There is no reliable information about his biography. According to one data, before the occupation of Iraq by US troops, he worked in the trade (he was selling women's underwear), according to other sources, he served in elite units of S. Hussein and after the occupation of Iraq he worked in the Iraqi police.
For participation in armed resistance to the occupation authorities in Iraq, Abu Maria Al-Qahtani was arrested in 2004 and imprisoned.
After his release, he again joined the "jihadists" and was among the first groups of militants who moved at the end of 2011 from Iraq to Syria to participate in the civil war.
Abu Maria Al-Qakhtani became one of the founders of the ITO "JAN". He worked as head of the Shariah Council, but in 2014, Shaykh Uraidi transferred this post. It was the "Wallium" of the East Deir-ez-Zor, but after its capture, ISIS moved to the province of Deraa.
In the militants of the ITO "ISIS" Abu Maria Al-Qahtani received the nickname "Abu Galaxy" for giving a smartphone "Samsung Galaxy" for each dead person and personally participated in the brutal massacres.
Abu Hammam As-Suri
Abu Hammam As-Suri began his terrorist activities as an instructor in the famous Al-Farouq militant camp in Afghanistan.
Was responsible for the "Muhajirs" from Syria and Iraq in Afghanistan (followed their affairs in Khorasan). Participated in many militant operations in Afghanistan against coalition forces. Shaykh Mustafa Abu Al-Yazid was sent to Iraq, where he met with Abu Musab Az-Zarqawi and Abu Hamzoy Muhajir.
Subsequently, he was arrested by the Iraqi intelligence and transferred to the Syrian authorities. However, for lack of evidence of his criminal activities, Abu Hammam As-Suri was released. In 2005 he was in Lebanon and Afghanistan. He returned to Syria as a representative of the ITO Al-Qaeda. He was arrested in Lebanon and sentenced to five years in prison.
Currently, he holds the post of the military amir of the ITO "JAN".
3.6. The most famous terrorist actions
On June 5, 2012 ITO "JAN" took responsibility for the mass execution of hostages, committed in 2012 near the city of Deir ez Zor.
In August 2013 in Latakia at least 190 civilians in several Alawite villages were killed by ITO militants.
In September 2013, the militants of the ITO "JAN" seized several Alawite villages in the province of Homs, where 30 civilians were executed.
At the end of August 2014, 45 soldiers (citizens of Fiji) from the UN peacekeeping contingent controlling the demilitarized zone in the Golan Heights seized militants of the ITO "JAN" by militants. The militants demanded to exclude the organization from the list of terrorist organizations recognized by the UN. In addition, the militia of the ITO put forward a demand for monetary compensation for the death of three of its members who were killed in a shootout with UN observers, and also demanded the delivery of humanitarian supplies to militia-controlled suburbs of Damascus. The real, but not declared, goal of the terrorists was to get a cash ransom for abducted peacekeepers. The mediator in negotiations with militants was the government of Qatar. According to an unofficial version, about $ 20 million was paid to militants of the MTA "JAN" for the release of peacekeepers.
On June 10, 2015, militants of the JAN ITO executed at least 20 civilians (Druze) after one of them - a supporter of B. Assad - opposed the expropriation of his house. Subsequently, the militants of the ITO "JAN" apologized and insisted that the killings were carried out exclusively against residents who had resisted them.
On May 12, 2016 Islamists of the ITO "JAN" and "Ahrar al-Sham" killed 42 civilians in the south of the province of Khama.
February 25, 2017 ITO "JAN" committed terrorist acts in Homs near the headquarters of the State Security Service and the military intelligence building. A series of terrorist attacks was carried out by a group of suicide bombers. As a result, 42 people were killed and several dozen were injured. Among the victims of the terrorist act was a high-ranking officer of the Syrian military intelligence.
On February 3, 2018 in the province of Idlib, the militants of the JAN ITO shot down the Russian SS-25 attack aircraft overflying the de-escalation zone.
SECTION 4. INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION "ISLAMIC MOVEMENT OF UZBEKISTAN"
The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (hereinafter referred to as IMU) is the largest of Islamist terrorist structures in post-Soviet Central Asia and is now organizationally part of the Islamic State. According to the classification of the US State Department, it is on the list of the most dangerous ITO.
In accordance with the decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of February 14, 2003 No. GKPI 03-116, the organization "Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan" was recognized as terrorist.
4.1. The history of the movement
IMU was created in 1996 by former members of a number of political parties and movements banned by the Uzbek authorities, including: Justice Society, Islamic Revival Party, Islamic Party of Turkestan, Islom Lashkarlari (Islamic Warriors "), Etc. At the same time, the political wing of the organization was headed by T. Yuldashev, and the leader of the combat unit of the organization was D. Khodzhiev.
Since 1997, Islamists from all countries of Central Asia have joined the IMU. The Uzbeks, Tajiks, Uighurs, Kazakhs, Tatars, Turkmens, etc. became its members.
The IMU militants managed to place their camps not only in Uzbekistan, but also in neighboring Tajikistan, where they managed to take advantage of political instability after the 1992-1997 civil war. In addition to this, the IMU succeeded in securing its presence in Afghanistan, which at that time was in fact under the full control of the Taliban movement.
The IMU established military infrastructure in several provinces of Afghanistan, including its own training camps in the cities of Mazar-i-Sharif, Kunduz, Kabul, whose distinguishing feature was the high level of training of militants for subversive-guerrilla warfare.
The organizational structure of the IMU included its own counter-intelligence agency, Istikhborat, whose task was to ensure the secrecy regime and to identify the incrusted intelligence agents.
In August 1999, IMU militants invaded from northern Tajikistan to southern Kyrgyzstan, where they were fighting until October 1999.
As a result of the Uzbek law enforcement authorities' actions towards the end of the 1990s, IMU militants were forced to leave the territory of Uzbekistan, and in 2001, after the start of US military operations against the Taliban, they actually left the territory of Afghanistan.
As a result of US air strikes in November 2001, the military leader of the organization, D. Khodzhiev, was destroyed. In 2001-2002, Zubair Ibn Abdurahim, head of IMU administration; spiritual mentors of the organization - Abduvali Damylla, Zakirzhan, Ubaidullo Damylla; the head of intelligence and, at the same time, the chief IMU financier, Ali Talha; the head of the Kyrgyz militants Ali Sher Nookatiy and others.
The most significant losses of the IMU were incurred in late November 2001 during a battle near the fortress Kalaya-Zhangi in Afghanistan, which lasted more than a week.
After the defeat of the Taliban in Afghanistan, the IMU succeeded in finding refuge in Pakistan (South Waziristan) in 2002 under the auspices of the field commander of the Waziristan Taliban, Maulvi Nazir.
However, in 2007, Maulvi Nazir expelled the IMU from South Waziristan because of IMU militants' violations of local customs and cruel treatment of the local population.
In 2009, the IMU joined the Taliban group Baitullah Mehsud and began active military operations against government forces in Pakistan.
After the death of the leader of the IMU Yuldashev, its leader was Usman Adil, who headed the organization until his death in April 2012 as a result of the impact of an American UAV. In August 2012, the IMU recognized the death of Usman Adil and elected Uman Ghazi as the new leader.
In August 2015, the IMU joined the ITO "Islamic State". The IMU leader Usman Ghazi announced that the organization was part of the Afghan branch of ISIS. A video appeared on the Internet that Gazi said that the Taliban are under the control of Pakistan's special services and put forward several demands to the head of the Taliban, Akhtar Mansur, including stopping contacts with Pakistan's special services, suspending negotiations with the Ashraf Ghani government, and stopping production and sales opium poppy and other narcotic drugs.
Some IMU field commanders took this decision of Usman Ghazi as a "betrayal" of the Taliban movement.
In December 2015, on the websites of the Taliban, a message was posted that the organization of the IMU was completely defeated by the Taliban and ceased to exist. In particular, they reported that the IMU militants were blocked by the Taliban in the province of Zabul, after which about 60 people from the group led by Usman Ghazi surrendered (some of whom were subsequently executed), and about 50 others were killed in the resistance. In addition, the Taliban posted a photo of the "murdered" Gazi.
4.2. The Goal and Goals of the Movement
According to the statements of the spiritual leader of the IMU, Abu Zarra, the main purpose of the IMU is to capture all the lands of Asia through a military campaign (called "Gazvat-ul-Hind"), previously ruled by Muslims, that is, the territories of Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, -Lanka, Maldiv, Bhutan, India, etc.
At the same time, due to the territorial location of the organization and the specifics of its interaction with other terrorist structures, the Central Asian direction in the organization's plans in recent years began to retreat to the second plan n.
4.3. Organization and tactics of the ITO
Organization Until recently, the organization had about 1500 militants (according to the Pakistani journalist Ahmad Rashid, the number of militants in the territory of Afghanistan and Pakistan reached from 200 to 500 people) and in its organizational structure was more of an armed formation than a typical terrorist structure.
The Supreme Power in the organization belonged to the Supreme Council, its chairman was Bilal (Abdurauf), and the military commander-in-chief was engaged in the IMU commander-in-chief, Amir Usman Ghazi.
IMU militants used the tactics of guerrilla warfare, periodically resorted to mobilizing the local population of villages under their control in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The IMU received financial assistance from Islamist funds in the Persian Gulf countries, from Pakistan, the Taliban, and from the structures of Osama bin Laden.
IMU militants are behind the most daring attacks on Afghan and Pakistani security forces. They carried out such operations as a terrorist attack in December 2012 at Peshawar airport and the organization of the escape from Bannu prison in April 2012, which resulted in the release of Adnan Rashid, who was awaiting the death penalty for the preparation of the assassination of President Pervez Musharraf.
4.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
Prior to joining the ITO Islamic State, the IMU coordinated terrorist actions with Al-Qaida and Tehrek-e-Taliban Pakistan, operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan. On the territory of Afghanistan, the IMU militants interacted with the Taliban and waged a joint war against the NATO armed forces.
4.5. The main leaders and ideologists of ITO
Usman Ghazi is the commander-in-chief of the IMU. He was born in 1970 in Tashkent (Uzbek SSR) in a family of workers, ethnic Uzbek. During the "empire" T. Yuldashev was a spokesman for the IMU (under the pseudonym Abdul-Fattah) and propagated the ideology of "jihad". Freely spoke several languages: Arabic, Tajik, Russian, English, Farsi.
Among the leaders of the IMU, U. Gazi had a reputation as a field commander with strict requirements to himself and his subordinates, who had great organizational skills. Usman Ghazi was behind the organization and conduct of numerous military operations against government forces in Pakistan, as well as NATO troops in Afghanistan.
Presumably, he was killed in 2015 by the Taliban.
Propaganda in the IMU was led by Muja Mujahid from Burma Abu Zarr Azzam. He joined the IMU in 2004, arriving from the Forum madrassah (Pakistan). In a short time he mastered several languages, including Uzbek. Thanks to his oratory Abu Zarr Azzam won great prestige among the population of Waziristan.
Kari Bilal - a senior IMU leader. In the spring of 2011, he was captured by the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and later released from custody at the personal request of President H. Karzai.
Yaha Hikmatia is a spokesperson for the IMU. He was a member of the IMU since the foundation of the movement, he worked with T. Yuldashev. Since 2000, he was Chairman of the IMU Elders Committee.
Asadullo Urganchi coordinated the work of the IMU media in Waziristan.
4.6. The Most Famous Terrorist Actions
Since the Uzbek authorities have accused IMU members of virtually all terrorist attacks in the country, it is difficult to determine the relevance of the IMU to a number of terrorist acts. In particular, the leader of the IMU Yuldashev rejected his involvement in the 1999 bombings in the city of Tashkent, which killed 16 people.
In 1999, 4 Japanese mountaineers were captured as members of the IMU in Kyrgyzstan.
It is believed that the IMU is behind a terrorist act committed in December 2002 in the city of Bishkek.
In May 2003, IMU militants organized a terrorist act at the exchange office of the Bakay Bank branch in Osh. The employee of the bank died from the wounds received as a result of the explosion. On February 19, 2004, the IMU militants Asadullo Abdullayev and Ilkhom Izatullayev, who participated in the commission of this terrorist act, were detained.
SECTION 5. INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION "TALIBAN"
Taliban is a major international terrorist organization operating in the APZ.
In many countries of the world it does not have the official status of a terrorist organization, but it is recognized by Russia and the CSTO member countries. By the decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of 14 February 2003 No. GKPI 03 116, the activities of the Taliban are prohibited in the territory of Russia.
Fig. 6. Flag of Taliban
5.1. The history of Taliban
The Taliban movement was established in the summer of 1994 under the resource, personnel and infrastructure assistance of the Pakistani special services. The first members of the organization were recruited from among the Taliban - young Afghan refugees who left the country because of the war and received religious education in Pakistan. In this regard, the name of the ITO comes from the combination of "seeking knowledge" - a student, a student.
In addition to the mastery of Islam, the training program of the Taliban included studying the tactics of conducting military operations, the bases of intelligence and subversive and subversive activities.
Pakistan's intelligence, with the assistance of the US CIA, planned to use the Taliban movement to protect Pakistan's borders and ensure the safety of merchant caravans and convoys with weapons.
The organization's leaders set out to fight against the government of Burhanuddin Rabbani, as well as other groups of Afghan mujahideen who fought for power after the withdrawal of a limited contingent of Soviet troops from Afghanistan in 1989. The ideology of the Taliban was based on Islamic fundamentalism, and the main officially declared goal of the movement was the restoration of Islamic norms and the return of peace to Afghanistan.
Military clashes between Taliban militants and Afghan government forces began in the autumn of 1994. Having received weapons from Pakistan, the Taliban fought against other groups of Mujahideen. In a short period, the Taliban managed to occupy a significant part of Afghanistan by defeating a number of large armed groups.
In 1995, the Taliban established control over South and West Afghanistan, and by September 1996 its militants managed to capture the capital of Afghanistan, Kabul.
Beginning in 1996, the Taliban began to cooperate with the Saudi multimillionaire Osama bin Laden, who began to participate in the financing of this group.
In August 1998, the Taliban managed to take Mr. Mazar-i-Sharif and capture most of northern Afghanistan.
Resistance to the Taliban was provided only by the Northern Alliance, led by Ahmad Shah Massoud, President Burhanuddin Rabbani and General Abdul-Rashid Dostum, who controlled only a small part of northern Afghanistan.
Having come to power in the country, the Taliban movement proclaimed the creation of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, whose head was Mohammed Omar.
In the Taliban-controlled territories, Sharia law was introduced in the most rigid interpretation: television, Western music, games, dances were banned, a "blank" burqa for women was introduced, and they were also forbidden to work and study. The Taliban imposed a ban on fine arts, and also prohibited wearing white shoes for Afghan residents, since white was the color of the Taliban flag.
The Taliban revived and began to widely apply medieval punishments: one or two hands were cut off for theft, adultery was stoned for marital infidelity, etc.
Despite the fact that the Taliban controlled about 90% of Afghan territory, their government was officially recognized only by three countries: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
After the September 11, 2001 Al Qaeda terrorist attacks and the Taliban's refusal to extradite its leader, bin Laden, who was hiding in Afghanistan, the United States and Great Britain launched the "Enduring Freedom" military operation on October 7, 2001, with the aim of undermining the potential and ending activities of the Taliban.
By the end of 2001, the power of the Taliban was overthrown. Many militants left for the mountainous areas of the country, and some of the members of the ITO "Taliban" were forced to flee to Pakistan. Since that time, the Taliban movement has gone over to guerrilla warfare.
However, despite the military operation of the US and its allies in Afghanistan, the Taliban still managed to regain influence in some areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. By 2005, its militants had regained control of a number of provinces in northwestern Pakistan, where the Taliban established a so-called. "The Islamic State of Waziristan." Attempts by the Pakistani army to return the territory of Waziristan under their control ended in vain.
In 2007, the Pakistani Taliban united in the Tehreek Taliban-and-Pakistan movement and attempted to raise the Islamic insurrection in Islamabad, which, however, was successfully suppressed.
Fig. 7. Flag of the terrorist group Tehreek Taliban-and-Pakistan
Presumably in 2011, the Taliban lost their leader, Muhammad Omar. However, his death was confirmed by the leadership of the Taliban only in 2015. After reports of the death of Mullah Omar, the new "emir" was proclaimed Mullah Mansur. However, some supporters of Mullah Omar did not agree with this decision. Mullah Mansur's main rivals for the leadership of the Taliban movement were brother and eldest son of Mullah Omar. However, they nevertheless swore allegiance to Mulla Mansour, as solidarity in the ranks of the Taliban is a key factor determining the viability of their terrorist structure.
July 7, 2015 in Islamabad (Pakistan), with the mediation of the United States and the PRC, between representatives of the Government of Afghanistan and the Taliban, the first round of direct talks on the prospects for a cease-fire and a peaceful settlement was held.
On May 21, 2016, the US armed forces struck a missile at the car in which the leader of the Taliban movement, Akhtar Mansur, was. The information about his death was confirmed the next day by the high-ranking commander of the group Mullah Abdul Rauf.
On May 25, 2016, the Taliban announced the election of a new leader, Khaybatullah Akhundzada, a theologian and an expert on Islamic law.
By now, the Taliban managed to expand their zone of influence in the southern province of Afghanistan, which borders on Pakistan, Helmand, and also to capture Sangin. Thus, the Taliban militants fully control the areas bordering Pakistan and a large part of the territory of Helmand.
Despite the fact that the Taliban's victories are sometimes short-lived, and government forces manage to regain control of the lost territories, the general trend of recent times has been the steady growth of Taliban-controlled territories in Afghanistan. Government forces currently control less than 60% of the country's territory.
5.2. Goals and objectives of the movement
The Taliban movement is predominantly a Pashtun terrorist structure, its leaders have never set themselves global expansionist goals. In this regard, the main goal of the Taliban movement is to build a "truly Islamic" state based on the Sharia norms in the Afghan-Pakistani region.
5.3. Organization and tactics of the ITO
The Taliban movement throughout its history differed from many terrorist groups in a clear hierarchical structure.
The movement is led by the "emir", he has two deputies in his subordination.
The next step in the hierarchy is the Council (Shura) of 18 people. When Muller Mansour, its composition was increased to 21 people. Most of the members of the Council come from the southern provinces of Afghanistan.
The Council manages the work of about ten "commissions" (military, financial, cultural, educational, intelligence commission, etc.). A key role is assigned to the military commission, which manages the planning, implementation and coordination of Taliban combat operations.
Fields are managed by field commanders and representatives ("governors") of the Taliban in various provinces of Afghanistan.
In connection with the fact that the Taliban detachments are scattered across various regions of Afghanistan, the issues of organizing communications and communication cause serious problems. Leaders of the ITO try to transmit information verbally with the help of their assistants or use messenger-messengers with written messages.
It should be noted that in view of the regular air strikes of the United States and its Taliban allies, the ITO lacks a developed infrastructure: Taliban leaders and militants try to move from one place to another all the time.
In recent years, the Taliban have shaken internal conflicts. So, in November 2015, armed clashes began between the militants of Akhtar Mansur and the militants of the opposition faction "The True Taliban" led by Mullah Mansur Dadullah. After the murder of its leader, the leadership of the opposition turned to Mullah Muhammad Rasul.
At present, the Taliban movement does not have a single, clearly organized structure. It consists of local groupings operating in the APZ, whose leaders declare their affiliation or alliance with the Taliban movement.
The main method of activity of the Taliban movement is guiding partisan war, which is largely due to the current military potential and the existing organizational structure of the group. With the reduction and withdrawal of NATO forces from Afghanistan, the Taliban have increasingly resorted to the seizure of territories.
A distinctive feature of the Taliban movement is not only a careful study of the strengths and weaknesses of the enemy, but also the creation of a branched conspiratorial network of informers-accomplices who report all movements of government and foreign troops in Afghanistan.
In recent years, the Taliban has begun to use the methods of terrorist activities that are characteristic of Islamist groups operating in the Middle East region. In particular, the Taliban began to actively use suicide bombers, the practice of decapitation of hostages has spread. All this shows that the Taliban seeks to demonstrate their commitment to the ideas and methods of conducting the "global jihad".
Peaceful negotiations between participants in the civil confrontation in Afghanistan, the Taliban is taking advantage of, in order to "legalize" its terrorist structure in the eyes of the world community and weaken the government forces in Afghanistan.
To negotiate and organize international meetings, the Taliban created a special "political commission" with an office in Qatar. The Taliban has a strategic initiative in the negotiating process and sets its own terms for negotiating with the Afghan government. In particular, the Taliban demand the complete withdrawal of foreign troops from Afghanistan, the release of captured captive militants, the exclusion of the Taliban from the list of UN terrorist organizations, and the holding of negotiations at the Taliban office in Qatar.
5.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
Taliban actively cooperated with many terrorist organizations, including Al-Qaida, the Union of Islamic Jihad, Lashkar-i-Taiba, the Islamic Movement of Eastern Turkestan, the Islamic Movement Uzbekistan, etc.
At present, the Taliban has close ties with the terrorist group Tehreek Taliban-and-Pakistan, the Islamic State of Waziristan and the Haqqani Group.
On the territory of Afghanistan, the Taliban are opposed to the militants of ISIS, who created "in the territory of the state Vilayat Khorasan", as well as groups that swore allegiance to them.
The internal disunity of the Taliban movement and the contradictions between individual groups of militants were used by the ISIS militants to strengthen their influence in the region. The Taliban tried to counteract this, which led to armed clashes between the two ITOs. However, in the summer of 2016, Taliban and ISIS concluded an unspoken tactical truce with each other and temporarily ceased hostilities.
It should be noted that since the establishment, Taliban has received assistance from the Pakistani special services, which have had a significant impact on the strategic planning and conduct of Taliban military operations, especially during the period 1994-2001. Currently, according to the adviser to the Pakistani Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs Sartazh Aziz, Pakistan has "leverage" on Taliban "... since their leadership is in Pakistan, they are being treated in the country, and their families are here".
Taliban, operating in the southern part of Helmand province adjacent to the border with Pakistan, receive assistance from the Pakistani military, and the Pakistani troops themselves repeatedly crossed the border with Afghanistan and conducted military special operations on its territory.
The special services of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United States and Israel are making active attempts to establish contacts with the leaders of the Taliban movement and to exert a controlling influence on the strategy and tactics of the ITO.
5.5. The main leaders and ideologists of ITO
Mulla Omar (Muhammad Umar) is the founder of the Taliban movement, the head of Afghanistan during the period of the Islamic Emirate (from 1996 to 2001).
Omar was born in 1960 in the province of Kandahar in the village of Chah-i-Himmat and belonged to the Tomsi clan of the Khotak tribe. Omar was brought up by his uncle, who was a teacher in a rural madrasah. After the introduction of the Restricted contingent of Soviet troops into Afghanistan, Omar dropped his studies and joined the detachments of the Mujahideen. He quickly received the glory of a good grenade launcher (he masterfully mastered the shooting from RPG-7). In battles with units of the Soviet Army four times was wounded (lost his eye).
After the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, Omar turned to religion and became the imam of the mosque he founded in the village of Sangsar (Maiwand district). Relying on the help of the Pakistani special services, Omar founded the Taliban movement. In November 1994, under the control of the Taliban, the entire province of Kandahar turned out, Herat fell a year later, and in 1996 Omar took the title of "Amir al-Muminin" (leader of the faithful).
In September 1996, the Taliban occupied Kabul and the "Islamic Emirate" was proclaimed in much of Afghanistan, which was recognized by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the UAE. Mullah Omar lived in Kandahar and almost never appeared in the capital of the "emirate". He did not appear in public, transmitting his appeals and decrees through the "Sharia Voice" - the only radio allowed under the Taliban. During the second Chechen campaign, Omar declared the "jihad" of Russia.
It is noteworthy that Omar asked Osama bin Laden not to "involve" the Taliban and Afghanistan in the war with the United States. However, despite all the disagreements between the two leaders, after the September 11, 2001 attacks, Mullah Omar refused to extradite Osama bin Laden to the American authorities. After the US invasion of Afghanistan, Omar was hiding in the city of Quetta (Pakistan). For information that could contribute to his capture, the US promised to pay $ 10 million.
Presumably, Omar was liquidated on May 23, 2011 in the vicinity of Quetta. On July 30, 2015, the Taliban confirmed the death of their leader.
Mavlavi Khaybatullah Akhundzada is a theologian, currently the leader ("emir") of the Taliban movement.
Mavlavi Khaybatullah Akhundzada was born in 1961 in the province of Kandahar and belongs to the Pashtun Nurzai tribe. His father was a rural imam.
After the capture in 1996 of the Taliban, Kabul Akhundzada took up the post of a member of the Department for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice. Then he moved to Kandahar, where he became an instructor in the jihadist madrasah.
After US troops overthrew the Taliban regime in 2001, Akhundzada was appointed chief judge of the Sharia courts.
He is the author of many fatwas (religious prescriptions), which, among other things, justified the organization of terrorist acts.
In the Taliban movement, Akhundzada has the authority of a religious leader. He took an active part in the settlement of religious and other disputes among the leaders of the Taliban and sought to consolidate the movement.
After the death of Mullah Omar in 2013, Akhundzada became deputy leader of the Talo MTO. In May 2016, after the death of Akhtar Mansur led the movement.
Mansur Akhundzada formally has two deputies (assistants). The first deputy is Sirajuddin Haqqani, the second is Mullah Mohammad Yaqub, the son of the former leader of the Taliban movement, Mullah Omar.
Sirajuddin Haqqani is the leader of the Haqqani group, aterrorist organization operating in alliance with the Taliban and carrying out armed attacks against coalition and government forces in Afghanistan.
Sirajuddin Haqqani is the son of a well-known terrorist, the founder of the terrorist organization "Haqqani group" - Jalaladin Haqqani.
Sirajuddin Haqqani led the "Haqqani group" after the fall of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan in 2001 and brought it to the list of the most combat-capable units of the Taliban.
In 2005, by decision of the leaders of the Taliban and Al-Qaeda movement, Sirajuddin Haqqani was appointed the leader of a group of militants operating in Paktika, Paktia and Khost.
Sirajuddin Haqqani quickly became the most influential field commander of the Taliban in the east of Afghanistan.
He began to take part in the settlement of conflicts that arose among the leaders of the Taliban movement and claimed the supremacy of the Taliban hierarchy. In particular, Sirajuddin Haqqani in autumn 2008 acted as rival of Mullah Omar, which led to an aggravation of relations between the Taliban and the Haqqani group. However, one year later, one of its leaders, Mullah Sangin Zadran, said he believed the Taliban, Al-Qaida and the Haqqani group to be one.
It is believed that Sirajuddin Haqqani was the organizer of the attack on the Serena Hotel in Kabul on January 14, 2008, during which six people were killed.
In March 2008, with special order number 13224, the US Department of State enlisted Sirajuddin Haqqani on the list of dangerous international terrorists and announced a reward for it of $ 10 million.
Abdul Ghani Baradar, also known as Mullah Baradar Akhund, is one leader and field commander of the movement The Taliban. According to his views, it is considered "moderate" among the leaders of the Taliban.
Baradar was born in 1968, his ethnicity is Pashtun from the Durrani tribe.
His military activities began during the deployment of a limited contingent of Soviet troops in Afghanistan. In 1994, he was among those who took an active part in the creation of the Taliban movement. Prior to 2001, he held various positions: he ruled Herat and the province of Nimroz, commanded a group of militants in the west of Afghanistan, was a close associate of Mohammad Omar.
In close cooperation with the Taliban Defense Minister, Ubaidullah Akhund Yar Mohammad Akhund, organized and coordinated Taliban operations against the Afghan government and the coalition forces.
Baradar was captured by Pakistani intelligence on February 8, 2010, and on September 21, 2013 he was released early from a Pakistani prison at the request of the Afghan government.
Mullah Muhammad Rasul is one of the leaders of the Taliban movement.
Rasul was born supposedly in the mid-1960s. in the Afghan province of Kandahar.
With the coming to power of the Taliban, Rasul became governor of the province of Nimroz. He was a close companion and friend of Omar.
After the invasion of Afghanistan by US troops, Rasul became the shadow governor of the Taliban in Farah Province, and also a member of Shura.
In 2015, Rasul went into opposition to the new leadership of the Taliban movement and founded his terrorist group. The split was the result of disagreements over the election of the newleader TalibanAkhtar Mansur. Rasul's forces fought fierce battles in the southern Afghan province of Zabul with the Mansur militants, but were defeated. In March 2016, Mullah Rasul fled to Pakistan, where he was immediately arrested by the Pakistani authorities, which is strange given that other Taliban leaders are "quietly" living in Pakistan and commanding combat troops in Afghanistan for several years from the neighboring state.
In this connection, attention is drawn to the fact that Rasul was the only leader of the Taliban movement who advocated a fight with ISIS in Afghanistan.
5.6. The most famous terrorist actions
In August 1995, the Il-76 aircraft of the Russian airline Aerostan (Kazan) was captured by Taliban fighters, whose crew was held for a long time as hostages.
On October 8, 2009, a suicide bomber detonated a mined car near the Indian Embassy in Kabul, killing 17 people.
On December 28, 2009, a suicide bomber blew himself up in a crowd of Shiite Muslims who celebrated Shiite mourning for Ashura. As a result of the explosion, 43 people died.
On August 6, 2010, in the Afghan province of Badakhshan, Taliban militants killed 10 employees of the international charitable Christian organization International Assistance Mission. Among them were six Americans, one British, one German and two Afghans.
September 3, 2010 as a result of the explosion at a rally in Quetta, committed by the Pakistani Taliban, killed 54 people.
On November 5, 2010, a suicide bomber blew himself up in a mosque during a Friday prayer in the Pakistani city of Darra Adam-Hel. More than 50 people became victims of the terrorist action.
On March 9, 2011, a suicide bomber blew himself up in a suburb of Peshevara during the funeral of the wife of one of the activists of the organization fighting the Taliban. As a result of the terrorist act, about 40 people were killed.
On April 3, 2011, two suicide bombers blew themselves up during a religious celebration in the city of Dara Gazi Khan. More than 40 people became victims of the terrorist attack.
On January 17, 2014, a suicide bomber blew himself up near a Lebanese restaurant in Kabul. As a result of the terrorist act, more than 20 people were killed, including 4 UN employees.
On October 19, 2015, a bomb exploded in the market town of Andhui in the province of Faryab in Afghanistan. Five civilians were killed and 25 people were injured.
January 27, 2018 in Kabul as a result of a suicide bomber who blew up a car with explosives, 103 died and 253 people were injured. Responsibility for the attack was taken over by the Taliban.
SECTION 6. INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION "HIZB UT-TACHRIR AL-ISLAMI" ("PARTY OF ISLAMIC RELEASE")
Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami (hereinafter - HT) is a centralized Sunni Muslim organization of a terrorist orientation.
On February 14, 2003, by the decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, the "Party of Islamic Liberation" ("Hizb ut Tahrir al-Islami") was recognized as terrorist and its activities are prohibited on the territory of the Russian Federation.
6.1. History of the organization
Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami ("Party of Islamic Liberation") was established in 1952 in the town of Quddous by a native of Palestine, judge of the Shariah Court of Appeal Takiuddin al-Nabhani (1909 - 1977/79). Initially, the organization was created as a party of Islamic intellectuals under the slogans of the anti-Israeli struggle of the Palestinians.
Fig.8. Flag "Hizb ut Tahrir al-Islami".
At the first stage (1950s-1970s), the cells of the organization were formed in countries with predominantly Muslim populations.
At the second stage (1980s - 1990s), HT established branches in states with large Islamic communities (Great Britain, Germany, Denmark, France, etc.).
After the collapse of the USSR, the organization began to actively work in the post-Soviet space.
At present, HT offices and cells operate in Azerbaijan, Russia, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Algeria, Yemen, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, China, USA, Canada, Great Britain, Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Austria, Greece, Turkey. The centers of the greatest activity of HT are in Great Britain, Lebanon and Indonesia, where the general management of the regional offices of the organization is carried out, important personnel and financial issues are being addressed.
The main sources of financing of the ITO come from funds and other organizations from Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Netherlands. Financing schemes in the Russian Federation and the CIS are characterized by the organization of numerous commercial structures controlled by HT, used for financial support of "struggling brothers" in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
The leader of HT is the citizen of Lebanon Ata Abu ar-Rasht (abbreviated name Abu ar-Rasht). Headquarters ("Kiyadat") is located on the territory of Lebanon.
The activity of HT in Russia began in 1999 after the transfer of one of the emissaries of ITO, a citizen of Uzbekistan, by Kasymakhunov Yu.S. In the period from 2000 to April 2003, Kasymakhunov managed to form a network of cells in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Ufa, Makhachkala, organize recruitment activities to involve new supporters in the ranks of HT and establish working contacts with human rights organizations.
The Russian representation of HT, from its inception, was subordinated to the Crimean branch of the ITO, located on the territory of the city of Alushta (the Republic of Crimea) and directly funded from Turkey and Lebanon.
After the recognition of the terrorist organization in Russia in 2003 and the involvement of Kasimakhunov in criminal responsibility, the main tasks of uniting the co-religionists and destabilizing the political situation in the regions of the Russian Federation were assigned to groups of specially trained "Hizbis" from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
The current stage of HT development is connected with the ban on the organization's activities in the countries of the former USSR, Western Europe and South-East Asia (2000s) and attempts to legalize it as a political organization with a pan-Islamic ideological platform.
HT is currently banned in Saudi Arabia, the Netherlands, Malaysia, Turkey, France, Tunisia, Denmark, Jordan, Germany, Egypt, Spain, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Russia and Pakistan.
In May 2017, the Government of Indonesia announced its decision to dissolve Hizb ut-Tahrir Indonesia. The minister - coordinator for politics, law and security, Vianto, said that the decision to dissolve the HT branch is connected with threats to the sovereignty of the Republic and attempts to seize state power with the aim of creating a caliphate.
6.2. The purpose and goals of the organization
As the goal of the ITO, the overthrow of secular governments and the establishment of Islamic government on a global scale are proclaimed by creating a single Islamic state - the "World Islamic Caliphate".The main task of the HT functionaries is to propagate the idea of restoring the Caliphate in any conditions and situation. According to the doctrinal views of HT ideologues, the restoration of the Caliphate will first take place in a single country, and then the task of its expansion will be decided by the already authoritative structures of the Caliphate.
6.3. Organization and tactics of the organization
One of the main features of HT's activity at the present stage are adaptation of its organizational structure and tactics to special methods of work of special services.
Initially, the organization of ITO activities was hierarchical. The head of the ITO was the "mutamad". He was subordinated to the regional leaders - "Masul". Assistants of "Masula" - "Musoids" - supervised the activities of district organizations. The organization's bottom line was headed by the "nakib". Subordinated nakiba-mushrifs controlled the Khalkas (a separate group consisting of 4-5 people).
At present, the management of the ITO has abandoned the vertical structure of the organization and has shifted to the network principle of managing its regional units, allowing for a higher level of conspiracy, which significantly hinders their prompt development by special services and law enforcement agencies.
The tactical characteristics of the ITO's activities include: the conduct of radical Islamist propaganda, combined with intolerance towards other religions (primarily Judaism); active recruitment of supporters; propaganda of religious enmity and hatred. In the methods of recruitment, elements of PR and NLP technologies are traced.
The most active and radical members of the ITO for ideological and combat training are sent to the countries of the Middle East.
The key activity of HT is the creation of an extensive infrastructure (conspiratorial apartments, clandestine printing houses, warehouses of logistics and other supplies), the acquisition of supporters from among media workers, student youth, influential and respected Muslim leaders, experienced lawyers (especially human rights organizations) for preparation of public opinion and legalization of the ITO.
As follows from the founding documents of the ITO, HT considers itself an intellectual political party carrying out the Islamic call by spreading thoughts, beliefs and documents.
HT leaders formally proclaim a policy of using exclusively legitimate non-violent methods of work, but their program document "Administrative Law of Hizb-ut-Tahrir" states that "the coming to power is carried out through political struggle, but the seizure of power is of an armed nature".
According to experts, the arguments in defense of HT are based on insufficient awareness of its history, international and regional activities, poor knowledge or complete ignorance of its literature. However, it should be borne in mind that some of the propaganda materials of HT are aimed at international organizations (primarily human rights organizations) in the hope of creating an image of a "peaceful party" for them and for information and propaganda support. The content of such materials (without extremely radical anti-Semitic or anti-Christian slogans) sharply differs from those that are spread among ordinary believers in local languages.
As it has already been noted, the main goal of HT activity is the creation of the Caliphate, which will unite the territories of all Muslim countries within its borders, and then through propaganda and conduct of hostilities will extend its power over the rest, non-Muslim world.
The formation of the World Caliphate is carried out in three stages. The first stage is the stage of the "hidden call-up", when the members of HT secretly increase the number of the structure by involving new members in the so-called. training groups ("Halkas") and conducting agitation and educational work among them; a party core is formed; the electorate is being prepared; cells of the organization are created in different layers of society.
The second stage is an open appeal to the Muslim community through holding large-scale public events (rallies, demonstrations, pickets, conferences, etc., including using the media). The HT leaders attach special importance to the second phase, during which members of the terrorist structure gradually penetrate into government bodies, public associations, economic and cultural-ideological organizations and attract high-ranking officials and officials to their side. Such infiltration is carried out for the purpose of radical Shariah transformation of society.
The third stage presupposes the direct seizure of power, including by force.
A characteristic feature of this terrorist organization is a systematic, based on modern psychological and managerial methods, to involve as many members as possible in its ranks, as well as accomplices sympathizing with the ideas of the HTO "HT".
In recent years, a new element of HT tactics has been the transition from conspiratorial agitation and propaganda classes in apartment supporters to public political actions (pickets and rallies against the "persecution" of Muslims, participation in the activities of "non-system" opposition, etc.)
6.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
Fearing the ban, HT seeks to avoid direct official ties with terrorist organizations, but has close working contacts with IMU representatives, Chechen illegal armed groups, Uygur separatists, and Pakistani radical Islamist organizations.
At the end of 2002, the "Party of Islamic Liberation", acting on the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan, joined the participants of the IMU, which was destroyed in Uzbekistan. Among them were militants, who had undergone sabotage and terrorist training in the Khattab and Abu al-Walid camps in Chechnya.
Leaders and ideologists of HT repeatedly justified the attacks of suicide bombers.
HT cells traditionally have a high level of cohesion and, for tactical purposes, can organize interaction with ideologically similar terrorist and extremist structures in other regions. Thus, according to Russian law enforcement agencies, HT cells operating in the Saratov region and the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug coordinated their recruitment and outreach work with the Tablighi Jamaat functionaries.
6.5. The main leaders and ideologists of the ITO
Takiuddin al-Nabhani (1909 - 1977/1979). He was born in the village of Ijim in the district of Haifa (Palestine) in the family of teachers of Sharia. He studied at al-Azhar University and Dar al-Ulyum College in Cairo. In 1928 he joined the organization "Brothers - Muslims". He worked as a teacher in a number of cities in Palestine. After the Arab-Israeli war (1947-1949) he moved with his family to Lebanon. He worked as a Shariah appellate judge in Jerusalem. After his resignation in 1950, he taught sharia at an Islamic college in Amman. In connection with ideological disagreements with the Muslim Brotherhood, in 1952 he established the party "Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami" and became its ideologue. He published a large number of books and articles on theological and political topics. After his death, the emir of the party was the Palestinian Abdul-Kadim Zalum, who led the party until 2003.
Sheikh Abdul Aziz Al-Badri (1929 - 1969). He was born in Baghdad. Iraqi Islamic scholar. Head of the Iraqi branch of HT. In the late 40's - early 50's. was an imam in a number of mosques. During this period, he joined HT. He headed mass protests against the brigadier-general Abdel Kerim Kasem, who seized power in Iraq. In the years 1959 and 1960, was under arrest in connection with opposition political activities.
After the decision of the founder of HT, Takiuddin al-Nabhani, about the establishment of the Iraqi branch of HT, Al-Badri appealed to the Government of Iraq for registration of the party, but was refused. He wrote several works: "Views of Islam on socialism", "Islam between scientists and rulers", "Islam: war against capitalism and socialism".
In 1956, he left HT and began to support the activities of the WTO "Muslim Brotherhood". In 1969, he was imprisoned and died as a result of torture.
Sheikh Omar Bakri Muhammad - was born in 1958 in the city of Aleppo (Syria) in a wealthy family. In his youth he was in the Syrian branch of the "Muslim Brotherhood", then joined the ranks of HT. In 1979 he moved to Egypt, where he studied at the University of Al-Azhar. In 1983 Bakri founded the cell HT in Saudi Arabia. After the refusal of the Kuwaiti leaders of HT to support the activities of HT in Saudi Arabia, created the Islamist group "Al-Muhajiroun". After the prohibition of Al-Muhajiroun, Bakri fled to the UK in 1986 and became the spiritual leader of HT in the territory of the United Kingdom.
In the 1990s. on the instructions of the special services of Great Britain established contacts and provided support to the "Army of Liberation of Kosovo".
In 1996, in connection with the increased disagreements due to HT's methods and policies, Bakri proclaimed Al-Muhajiroun an independent organization independent of HT and became its amir.
After the attacks of September 11, 2001, Bakri begins to support the ideological guidelines of Al-Qaeda, sharply criticizes US and British military operations in Afghanistan, justifies the terrorist attacks on Madrid trains in 2004, jihad in Bosnia, Chechnya, Afghanistan, Kashmir and others " hot "points. In November 2004, he dissolved the Al-Muhajiroun.
In July 2005, Bakri issued a fatwa with death threats against Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf. After the July 7, 2005 terrorist attacks in London, The Sunday Times accused members of Al-Muhajiroun of suicide bombings and supporting the al-Qaeda operative network. Soon Bakri left the United Kingdom, where his stay was deemed undesirable, and leaves for Lebanon.
In November 2010, Bakri was sentenced to death by a Lebanese court on charges of terrorism, but was released from bail on arrest. In May 2014, he was again arrested and sentenced to 6 years in prison for setting up a terrorist grouping "Front Nusra" and organizing her training camp in Lebanon.
Two of Bakri's sons fought against the government forces of Syria and Iraq on the side of the "Islamic state" and were killed during the clashes in December 2015.
Ata Abu al-Rasht is a Lebanese citizen, born in 1943 in the village of Rana in the Hebron area (Palestine). Head of Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami (HT). In the mid-50's. Abu al-Rasht joined the HT party. In 1961 he entered the University of Cairo, which graduated in 1966 with a diploma of a construction engineer. He worked as a builder in a number of Arab countries.
In the 1980s. was appointed as the official representative of HT in Jordan. Got famous during the war in the Persian Gulf through performances in the Jerusalem mosque in Amman.
On April 14, 2003 he was elected as the head of HT. In 2006, Abu Al-Rasht announced the armed jihad of the United States, Israel, the European Union and Russia.
6.6. The most famous terrorist actions
In 1968, 1969 and 1971, HT organized unsuccessful military coups in Jordan. In 1972, HT attempted a military coup in southern Iraq.
After the outbreak of the armed conflict in Syria, many supporters of HT left for the conflict zone to take part in the fighting on the side of the ITO. Some of them joined the ranks of other terrorist structures, some of them fought in the independent detachments of HT (the Lebanese and Tajik branches of HT).
Bahrun Naim, the most influential Indonesian-born terrorist in the ISIS, claiming the title of ISIS ambassador in Southeast Asia, was a member of HT before joining the Islamic state.
Hizb ut-Tahrir Indonesia is linked to the terrorist group Jemaah Islamiya, which is responsible for the terrorist attack in Bali on October 13, 2002. At that time, as a result of a series of suicide bombings, about 190 people were killed, more than 300 were injured. Bombs were detonated at a disco in the town of Huta. At the same time, explosive devices were launched near the buildings of US consulates in Bali and the Consulate General of the Philippines in Manado.
March 28-29, 2012 as a result of a series of terrorist acts in Tashkent killing 16 26 people were injured. According to a number of analysts, ITO "UIJ" and HT were involved in these terrorist acts.
In the CIS and Russian Federation there is a judicial practice of involving HT members in criminal responsibility for preparing and committing crimes of a terrorist nature.
SECTION 7. INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION "UNION OF ISLAMIC JIHAD"
ITO "Union of Islamic Jihad" is a terrorist organization based in North Waziristan, in the city of Mir-Ali. Also known as "Jamaat al-Jihad al-Islami", "Group of Islamic Jihad", "Islamic Union of Jihad", "Islamic Jihad - Jamaat of Mujahideen".
The organization's activities are prohibited on the territory of the Russian Federation by the decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of June 2, 2006. No. GKPI06-531.
Fig.9. "The Black Flag of Jihad", used by the militants of the ITO "Union of Islamic Jihad"
7.1. History of the organization
In 2002, as a result of the split in the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, some of its members, headed by Najmuddin Jalolov, left the organization and created a new terrorist structure - the Islamic Jihad Group. Its purpose was to transfer terrorist activity to the territory of Uzbekistan to fight the Karimov regime.
The militants of the Islamic Jihad Group in the mountains of Khorosan organized a training camp, and the militants trained in it began to be sent to the territory of Uzbekistan to carry out terrorist and other subversive activities. In 2004 - the beginning of 2005. the group began to carry out terrorist acts on the territory of Uzbekistan.
At the same time, the organization received its current name - "Union of Islamic Jihad" (hereinafter referred to as "UIJ").
The main ideologist of ITO "UIJ" since its inception was Sheikh Abu Leys al-Libi, who was the "commissioner" of the Al-Qaeda ITO in Central Asia and the commander of the militant detachment, which consisted of Jalolov. Thanks to Al-Libi (until his death in January 2008), the ITO "UIJ" actively interacted with Al-Qaeda and the Taliban. During this period, the ITO began planning and preparing terrorist acts in Pakistan and Western Europe.
In June 2005, the organization was recognized by the UN as a terrorist one.
It should be noted that a number of high-ranking officials and representatives of Western special services question the existence of the ITO "UIJ" as a really functioning terrorist organization. In particular, according to the former British Ambassador to Uzbekistan Craig Murray, if the ITO "UIJ" exists, it has organizational ties with the special services of Uzbekistan and is used to justify a tough internal policy towards opposition structures.
September 25, 2008 in the German magazine Monitor, an interview with an Uzbek defector - an officer of the National Security Service of Uzbekistan - Yakrom Yakubov, in which he claimed that MTO "UIJ" was created by Uzbek special services to recognize Uzbekistan as a country that became a "victim" of international terrorism.
Critically evaluating these information outliers, we note that the consistent anti-terrorist policies of the leadership of Uzbekistan and the effective work of national special services led to the extrusion of UIJ into the Afghan-Pakistani zone and Syria. Currently, the number of ITO is no more than 400 active members.
The ITO managed to recruit a significant number of foreign "jihadists", including Turkish citizens and the Turkish community in Western Europe, as well as ethnic neophyte Germans who converted to Islam.
In 2011, the ITO "UIJ" produced video recordings showing joint operations with the Taliban in the North and East of Afghanistan, as well as the infrastructure of the ITO (training camps and bases).
7.2. The purpose and objectives of the organization
The main goal of the organization is to overthrow secular power in Uzbekistan and create a theocratic state in Central Asia on the basis of Shariah norms.
The leaders of the ITO also declare their intentions to expand the geography of the group's terrorist activities and to launch a "jihad" against Christians and Jews in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia, as well as against US military and civil infrastructure facilities and their military-political allies.
7.3. Organization and tactics of the ITO
managerial core of the group consists of militants who were previously members of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, and because of this they have experience of fighting against the coalition forces in Afghanistan, as well as the Russian army in the North Caucasus. Many members of the ITO were trained in terrorist training camps in the territories of Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Chechen Republic.
The tactics of the organization's activities include the implementation of terrorist acts, as well as active advocacy on the cultivation, support and dissemination of the ideas of "jihad" in the countries of Central Asia, primarily in Uzbekistan.
To propagate its ideology, the ITO "UIJ" was created by the media agency "Badr at-Tawhid" ("The Shadow of Monotheism"), which disseminates information and propaganda materials in Uzbek and Russian. In Russian, Amin Abu Usama ar-Rusi actively propagates the "jihadist" ideology.
It is noteworthy that after the commission of a number of terrorist acts, members of the ITO "UIJ" were hiding in the territory of the Russian Federation (in Primorsky Krai, Belgorod, Samara and Kemerovo regions, and other subjects of the Russian Federation). Thus, in Vladivostok, a citizen of Kyrgyzstan M.Moydinov, detained in an international search, was suspected of organizing and committing terrorist acts in the cities of Tashkent and Osh in 2004.
7.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
MTO "UIJ" interacted with such terrorist organizations as "Taliban", "ETIM", "Lashkar-and-tajba" and etc. These terrorist coalitions usually were temporary.
7.5. The main leaders and ideologists of the ITO
Since the establishment of the ITO "UIJ", its leader was Najmuddin Jalolov, also known as Yakh and Ahmad. He was killed on September 14, 2009 near Mir-Ali (Pakistan) as a result of an air strike by an American UAV.
The next leader of UIJ was Ikromjon Mamajonov, who was detained on November 24, 2012 in Russia, and then deported to Uzbekistan.
Sadikov Olim ("Jafar") is one of the coordinators of the terrorist activities of the UIJ. He was born in 1985 in the Andijan region of the Uzbek SSR. After the death of his father he got into a foster family, where he was brought up in the spirit of religious extremism and jihadism. In 1999, his adoptive parents joined the detachments of the Islamic Movement of Turkestan (IMT) and took Sadikov to the areas of Tajikistan controlled by the Islamists of the United Opposition. In connection with the relocation of IMT to Pakistan, the leaders decided to send Jafar to Iran, as his foster father maintained close ties with the Iranian special services. In 2004, Jafar passed a course of training in sabotage and terrorist training in one of the training camps of Al-Qaeda. After completing the training, he joins UIJ and returns to Iran, where he heads the transit point for recruitment from CIS countries. Coordinates the transfer of recruits and militants to UIJ camps and MTO combat troops operating in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria.
7.6. The most famous terrorist actions
One of the first terrorist actions of MTO "UIJ" was the bombings in Bukhara and Tashkent in March and April 2004, during which the main targets of suicide bombers were the police and the General Prosecutor's Office of Uzbekistan. As a result of these terrorist acts, a total of 47 people were killed.
On July 30, 2004, the ITO "UIJ" carried out terrorist acts against the embassies of Israel and the United States, and also blew up the office of the Prosecutor General, located in Tashkent.
In September 2007, three members of the organization (two of whom were Germans (Fritz Gelovich and Daniel Schneider) who accepted Islam) were arrested in Germany for preparing a terrorist act.
The detainees planned to attack the Frankfurt International Airport, the US airbase "Rammstein" in the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate, as well as the American and Uzbek embassies in Germany. During the investigation, they showed that in 2006 they visited Pakistan in the training camp of the ITO "UIJ", where they learned the tactics of terrorist activity.
In March 2008, a member of the ITO "UIJ" Dzhuneyt Chifchi, born in Germany, blew himself up on an American military base in the Afghan province of Khost, killing two American soldiers and two Afghan army employees.
On May 26, 2009, the ITO "UIJ" undermined the post of police and other facilities in the cities of Andijan and Khanabad, which killed at least 16 people.
March 28-29, 2012, as a result of a series of terrorist acts in Tashkent (the explosion of a suicide bomber in the market, the attack of terrorists on law enforcement officers) killed 16 26 people were injured. According to a number of analysts, MTO "SID" and "Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami" were involved in these terrorist acts.
In April 2014, the militants of the ITO with Taliban captured the American military base Charguti, which was located in Afghanistan.
SECTION 8. INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION "JUND AL-SHAM"
Jund Al-Sham ("Soldiers of Great Syria") is a Sunni terrorist organization based primarily on the territory of Lebanon and Syria.
The name of the organization includes the word "Sham" ("great Syria"), which testifies to its terrorist aspirations towards Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine (Israel).
The organization's activities are prohibited on the territory of the Russian Federation in accordance with the decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of June 2, 2006 No. GKPI06-531.
8.1. The history of the organization
Jund Al-Sham was established in 2004 in the Palestinian refugee camp "Ain al-Hilweh", located near Sayda in southern Lebanon, with the active participation of the militants of the terrorist organizations Asbat Al-Ansar and Al Qaeda .
According to experts, this organization was associated with an Islamist group that operated in the early 1990s. in Jordan, and in 1999 relocated to Afghanistan.
It should be noted that the organization with the name "Jund al-Sham" first appeared in 1999 in Afghanistan and was formed under the leadership of Zarqawi with the financial support of Osama bin Laden, who donated about 200 thousand dollars for its creation. To train militants near the city Herat (Afghanistan), they established a training camp in which militants were taught the tactics of guerrilla warfare and mine-blasting. Jund Al-Sham included Islamists (about 150 militants) who moved to Afghanistan from Syria, Jordan, Palestine and other Arab states.
In 2001, the militants turned down the camp in connection with the beginning of the US operation in Afghanistan, and many of them moved back to the Middle East region.
Among the experts there is a wide range of opinions about the regions of institutionalization and the "succession" of this ITO. Thus, the Washington Post columnists believe that the Jund Al-Sham group, established in 2004 in Lebanon, has nothing to do with the terrorist structure functioning in Afghanistan.
In addition, there is no unity in the expert community as to whether Jund Al-Sham is an autonomous ITO or it has arisen as a result of a split in the leadership of the Palestinian organization Asbat al-Ansar.
One of the first terrorist acts of Jund Al-Sham was the explosion of the car of one of the leaders of Hezbollah, Ghaliba Avali, committed in July 2004 in Beirut. It is noteworthy that the official representative of Lebanese Shiite organization Hezbollah laid responsibility for the assassination of Ghalib Avali to Israel, rejecting involvement in the explosion of the car of the Jund Al-Sham group.
Besides killing Ghalib Awali ITO "Jund Al-Sham" claimed responsibility for several terrorist acts. Among them: the explosion in March 2005 in Doha (Qatar) theater, located next to the British school, which resulted in the death of a British teacher and 12 people were injured; 3 explosions in the Christian districts of Beirut (Lebanon); as well as an explosion in Texas, which in reality turned out to be an accident.
In October 2005, the militants of Jund Al-Sham threatened to kill the German prosecutor Detlev Mehlis, who led the UN investigation into the killing of the former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. At the same time, "Jund Al-Sham" claimed that Mehlis was connected with the special services of Israel.
In 2005, Jund Al-Sham established its "branch" in Syria, in Damascus. However, the Syrian special services organized a purposeful work to identify, prevent and suppress the terrorist activities of the group in the country. In September 2005, after an armed clash between the militants of Jund Al-Sham and the Syrian anti-terrorist unit in the province of Ham, the functionaries of the Syrian branch of Jund Al-Sham were arrested.
In 2006, Jund Al-Sham announced that it was joining Al-Qaeda, but the statement was declarative, indicating its commitment to the ideology of Al-Qaeda, and in no way limited its operational-tactical autonomy grouping.
On May 1, 2006, armed clashes occurred in the Ein al-Hilweh camp between Jund Al-Sham and Fatah.
On June 3, 2007, the Jund Al-Sham group fired a Lebanese army checkpoint in the Sidon area from the grenade launcher, which led to the response of the Lebanese army and, as a result, clashes in the Palestinian refugee camp in northern Lebanon.
On March 21, 2008, armed clashes occurred between the representatives of Fatah and the militants of Jund Al-Sham in the camp of Ain al-Hilweh, as a result of which one person was killed.
In connection with the outbreak of the civil war in Syria, "Jund Al-Sham" created in 2012 in the country its "branch". His emir was Khaled Makhmud Ad-Dandashi.
The main militants were the "Jund Al-Sham" militants in the province of Homs. In March 2014 they managed to capture the former fortress of the Crusaders "Krak-de-Chevalier". However, the Syrian army soon managed to knock terrorists out of the fortress. Ad Dandasi himself was killed, and his 300-strong squad moved to Lebanon, where it was partially blocked by the Lebanese army and the Shiite militia Hezbollah.
Later, the remnants of the group joined the ITO "JAN".
8.2. Purpose and objectives of the organization
The goal of Jund Al-Sham is to liberate Palestinian territories from occupation by Israel and to create an Islamic state on Sham territory with a Sharia form of government.
In addition, the leaders of Jund Al-Sham declared the need for establishing Islamic rule on a world scale by creating a "World Islamic Caliphate".
The current tasks of Jund Al-Sham are the restoration of the organizational structure and fighting ability of the grouping after the defeats suffered in Syria, attracting new supporters into their ranks.
The ITO currently operates in Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Palestine.
The activity of the ITO is largely due to the opposition to the Fatah movement.
8.3. Organization and tactics of the ITO
The number of Jund Al-Sham in Lebanon is estimated at several hundred militants, which are mainly concentrated in the Safsaf district and the Palestinian refugee camp of Ain al-Hilweh.
The tactics of "Jund Al-Sham" activity presupposes carrying out terrorist acts against diplomatic and other representations of foreign countries.
This terrorist organization is not officially recognized and registered in any state and operates from deeply conspiratorial positions.
8.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
Since its establishment, Jund Al-Sham has established contact with the leaders of illegal armed groups in the North Caucasus, primarily from the Arab countries. In addition, Jund Al-Sham organized military training courses for militants heading to the North Caucasus region to participate in terrorist activities on the territory of the Russian Federation. In particular, in 2005 a group of about 10 Chechen militants underwent a military training course on the basis of Jund Al-Sham.
Jund Al-Sham also developed plans for carrying out terrorist actions against Russian overseas institutions on the territory of Lebanon, employees and members of their families working in them.
In Iraq, the Jund al-Sham militants actively interacted with the terrorist group Kaidat Al-Jihad Fi Bilyad Ar-Rafideyn (Al Qaeda in the Mesopotamia), led by Abu Musaab al-Zarqawi, in Syria with the ITO " JAN".
8.5. The main leaders and ideologists of the ITO
There is very little information on the current leaders of Jund al-Sham. It is believed that the leader of the organization was Abu Yusuf Sharki, a native of Fatah.
The military wing of the organization was headed by Imad Yassin.
8.6. The most famous terrorist actions
On September 12, 2006, the Jund Al-Sham militants tried to storm the American embassy in Damascus, but his protection prevented it. As a result, three attackers were killed, one injured. An officer of the Syrian special services also died.
The militants "Jund al-Sham" are accused of organizing the massacre of dozens of Syrian Christians in August 2013 in the "Valley of Christians" (Wadi an-Nasara).
Currently in the territory of Syria there is a Caucasian bandit formation, which has a similar name - "Jund Al-Sham" and consisting mainly of militants - Caucasians. They took an active part in the offensive in the province of Hama. The Jund Al-Sham militants became the main strike force during the assault on the village of Kaukab, 3 km east of the city of Suran in the province of Khama. Initially, the jail al-Sham bandit establishment was based in Latakia province and operated in the Jebel al-Akrad region off the Turkish border. Later, her militants were forced to move to the provinces Idlib and Hama. The head of "Jund Al-Sham" is a native of the Georgian Pankisi Murad Margoshvili (Muslim Abu Walid ash-Shishani).
SECTION 9. INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION
"THE MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD"
The Muslim Brotherhood is a large Islamist terrorist organization operating mainly in the Middle East and North Africa. The ITO headquarters is located in the capital of Qatar, Doha. The organization has a strong influence in Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Syria and many other countries. In a number of countries, the ITO operates from a legal position, and related political parties have seats in the parliaments of the respective countries (Tunisia, Sudan, Yemen).
In accordance with the decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of February 4, 2003, N GKPI 03-116 organization, the Muslim Brotherhood was recognized as a terrorist organization and banned on the territory of Russia.
Fig.10. Flag of the organization "The Muslim Brotherhood"
9.1. History of the organization
The organization was established in 1928 in the Egyptian city of Ismailia by the school teacher Hasan Al-Banna. It became the world's first organized Islamist movement, advocating the revival of Islam in Egypt and beyond.
Since 1933 the headquarters of the organization has been transferred to Cairo.
"The Muslim Brotherhood" quickly went beyond charitable and educational activities, becoming a full-fledged political movement.
During the Second World War, the Muslim Brotherhood, despite declaring its neutrality, actively cooperated with Nazi Germany.
The Muslim Brotherhood also participated in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war.
After the assassination of Hasan al-Banna by the Egyptian secret political police in 1949, her ideologist became the writer Seyyid al-Qutb, but the ranks of the organization split and she ceased to exist as a single organization. At the same time, an extremist wing emerged from its ranks.
In the late 1940's - early 1950's. radical members of the "Muslim Brotherhood" carried out a series of political murders in Egypt.
In 1952, the Muslim Brotherhood supported a coup d'etat led by Gamal Abdel Nasser in the hope that the new government would share with them in the government. However, the political alliance with Abdel Nasser did not happen.
In 1954, after an unsuccessful attempt by members of the ITO for the Prime Minister (later became President) Gamal Abdel Nasser, the activities of the Muslim Brotherhood were banned in the country, and the most active members of the organization were executed or imprisoned.
The revival of the organization occurred in the late 1960s - early 1970s. Since that time, the headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood has been located in Saudi Arabia, and its activities have become increasingly international.
Under the Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, the organization, with the permission of the authorities, moved to a legal position.
In 1981, the breakaway faction of the Muslim Brotherhood radical group carried out the assassination of Egyptian President Sadat. After his death, the country was headed by Hosni Mubarak, who initiated a decisive struggle against religious extremists: The Egyptian police arrested many members of the organization, some of them were sentenced to long prison terms.
Laws of Egypt for a long time did not allow to create political parties on a religious basis, but since 1984 the Muslim Brotherhood has begun to participate in the parliamentary elections in Egypt on the lists of registered parties or as "independent" candidates.
During the stay of the limited contingent of Soviet troops in Afghanistan, the Muslim Brotherhood took part in the "jihad" against the Soviet Union. In the 1990s. representatives of the Muslim Brotherhood fought against Russia on the side of illegal armed groups in the Chechen Republic and Dagestan.
In the 2005 parliamentary elections in Egypt, candidates from the Muslim Brotherhood, who participated in the elections as independent, received 88 seats (20% of the composition of parliament), making up the largest opposition faction.
During the "Arab Spring", the Muslim Brotherhood took an active part in organizing popular protests in Cairo's Tahrir Square, which ultimately led to the resignation of President H. Mubarak.
After its overthrow in February 2011, the "Muslim Brotherhood" was the only well-organized political force in the country. The leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood movement decided to create a political party in the country, which was called the "Party of Freedom and Justice". One of its leaders was Muhammad Mursi.
At the same time, the "Muslim Brotherhood" took an active part in overthrowing the political regime of Muammar Gaddafi in Libya.
In June 2012, the leader of the movement, Mohammed Mursi, won the first democratic presidential election in Egypt. However, on July 3, 2013, he was overthrown by a coup d'état.
In September 2013, the Egyptian court banned all activities of the Muslim Brotherhood, and in December the Egyptian government declared the terrorist party.
9.2. Purpose and objectives of the organization
During the formation of the Muslim Brotherhood, the main efforts of the organization were directed toward the implementation of missionary activities. Its activists opposed the Westernization of Egyptian society, called for the construction of mosques and religious schools to resist the moral decay of young people.
The motto of the organization was the slogan: "Allah is the ideal, the Prophet is the leader, jihad is the mean of achieving the goal, death in the name of Allah is the cherished dream."
At present, the organization's goal is to overthrow secular regimes and create an Islamist state on a global scale.
9.3. Organization and tactics of the ITO The
organizational bases for the activities of the Muslim Brotherhood combine principles: the Sufi order, a political party and a conspiratorial militarized structure that use terrorist methods in their activities.
In countries where the Muslim Brotherhood is illegal, their organizational structure is an extensive network of cells - "Islamic associations" ("jamaat Islamiya"). The primary cell, consisting of 10-20 people ("brothers"), is a "family". The leading role in the "family" belongs to the "elder brother" ("amir"), who submits to the superior curator and informs him about the activities of the group. At the same time, the "elder brother" does not inform his curator about the personal composition of the group.
"Families" in the person of their "amirs" and curators form a "big family" ("capitalism"), which in turn is led by the "father". All "families" have their own "specialization": some are engaged in advocacy, others are terrorism, material and technical support of the organization, etc.
"Council of Fathers" is the governing body of the organization of "brotherhood" in a particular country or region and is headed by the "Sheikh".
The leading role in the organization belongs to the constituent committee (the "Big Council"), which consists of representatives of various structural links of organizations. "Big Council" elects "supreme brother" ("Supreme mentor") and two "great brothers" - his assistants, who manage missionary and militarized formations.
In the organization there are four levels of initiation (membership).
The first level is "help brothers" (al-musaide), which provide financial and other assistance to the organization. They did not pass the rite of joining the brotherhood and did not take an oath on the Koran.
The second level is "brothers" (al-muntasib). These include ordinary members of the organization.
The third degree of initiation is "preachers" (al-amyl), who proved in practice their devotion to the organization and are, as a rule, commanders of the junior level.
The fourth, the highest level - is "dedicated" (wearing the title of "sheikh" or "mujahideen"), who are the leaders of military organizations or field commanders of the highest level.
Spiritual instructors and ideologists in the organization are "seyyids". They issue fatwas (messages), which contain strategic guidelines for the leaders of the structural elements of the organization and motivational basis for the activities of ordinary members of the ITO.
Currently, the "Muslim Brotherhood" in Egypt are in an irregular situation. At the same time, the ITO structural units function in many countries of the world: Jordan, Syria, Palestine, Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Yemen, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, Sudan, Turkey and a number of Western European countries.
In a number of states, public organizations affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood - the British Muslim Brotherhood Association, the Islamic Society of Germany, and the Federation of Islamic Communities of Europe - exist legally.
In Jordan, the "Muslim Brotherhood", represented by the "Islamic Action Front", has its representation in the country's parliament.
Unlike many Islamist organizations that are formed on the basis of nationality, the Palestinians, Libyans, Somalis, Egyptians, Iraqis, etc. are actively involved in the activities of the Muslim Brotherhood. Moreover, the Muslim Brothers, despite their Sunni affiliation, cooperate with Shiite organizations of Iran and receive financial assistance from there.
In their activities, the Muslim Brotherhood uses both legal and illegal (including terrorist) methods aimed at forming Islamic power in the countries of the Arab East. As a trend in recent years, the persistent desire of the leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood to exert pressure on the authorities of the Arab countries under the cover of legal party activity can be highlighted. The ideological basis for such interference is the establishment of the need for strict correspondence between the life of each person to the Prophet's instructions and the duties of officials empowered with power to force everyone to follow the laws of the Sharia.
To carry out terrorist activities, the Muslim Brotherhood provides training for militants in special training camps, where they are taught the basics of conspiracy, weapons skills, tactics of armed raids and raiding actions, methods of avoiding outdoor observation, the basics of military topography, ways of providing first aid and etc. So, according to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Egyptian "Muslim Brotherhood" assisted in financing and subversive and terrorist training was militarized groups in special camps on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. About 4,000 militants trained by the Muslim Brotherhood participated in military operations on the side of Muslims in the former Yugoslavia (the Bosnian war of 1992-1995). Some of the militants were then sent to the Chechen Republic to support the illegal armed formations of the so-called "Chechens". "The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria".
9.4. Interaction with other terrorist structures
The Muslim Brotherhood actively interacts with various terrorist and religious extremist structures, often acting as a link and the basis for their interaction. This is facilitated by the fact that many religious extremist and terrorist organizations emerged from the depths of the Muslim Brotherhood.
In 1977, for example, a group of extremist-minded members of the Muslim Brotherhood formed a new organization called Takfir Wal Hijra, which launched an active terrorist activity.
At the end of 1987, the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood organization, the Hamas organization, arose.
During the active phase of the conflict in Syria, the terrorist organization Akhrar al-Sham was in fact the armed wing of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Syrian province of Idlib.
It should be noted that the activity of the affiliated structures of the Muslim Brotherhood was also observed in the North Caucasus in the 1990s. In particular, the nearest entourage of terrorists Shamil Basayev and Khattab included representatives "Charityth" fund "Al-Haramain", which had close ties to the "Muslim Brotherhood". It was under the cover of the channel of pseudo-admission to the North Caucasian bandit underground that had financial resources for the needs of terrorist activities.
Moreover, Russian special services recorded the participation of recruit volunteers from the Balkans, trained by the Muslim Brotherhood, in the illegal armed formations of Ichkeria.
9.5. The main leaders and ideologists of the ITO
Seyyed Ibrahim Kutbu is an ideologist of the "Muslim Brotherhood", a theorist of modern jihad.
He was born on October 9, 1906 in the village of Musha, 235 km from Cairo, in a noble but impoverished family. He graduated from the Dar Ul-Ulum Institute (House of Sciences) in Cairo. After receiving the diploma of an elementary school teacher, Seyyed Kutbu joined the Ministry of Education of Egypt in 1939, where he worked as an inspector until 1951. In 1948, while on a foreign business trip to the United States, he studied the experience of organizing school education. Sharply condemned the American way of life (racism, individualism, cheeky behavior of women, equality, the cult of money and other phenomena).
After his return to Egypt he resigned and turned to Islam. In 1951, he joined the organization "Muslim Brotherhood", advocating the strengthening of the role of Islam in public and public administration. In 1952 he was elected a member of the Steering Bureau of the Muslim Brotherhood as head of the Islamic Propaganda Department.
In 1954, after the failure of the conspiracy of the Muslim Brotherhood to murder the President of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser was imprisoned. While in prison, Kutbu wrote the work "Milestones on the Road," which is considered a doctrinal work of modern radical Islamism. In 1955 he was sentenced to 15 years in prison and hard labor.
At the end of 1964, was released at the request of the Iraqi president, but again arrested in August 1965,
Kutbu was charged with preparing a coup d'état. The trial ended on August 21, 1966, with the imposition of the death sentence through hanging by Seyyed Kutbu and two members of the Muslim Brotherhood (Muhammad Yusuf Havash and Abd al-Fattah Ismail). The verdict was carried out on August 29, 1966.
Sheikh Yusuf Abdullah Ali al-Qardawi is an Islamic scholar and spiritual leader of the Muslim Brotherhood.
He was born in 1926 in a small village in the west of Egypt. He received his primary education at Quranic school. At the age of 18 he entered the Al-Azhar University at the Faculty of Religion. In 1953 he graduated with honors from Al-Azhar and became a teacher.
In 1960 he graduated from the magistracy of the specialty "Quran studies". In 1973 he defended his doctoral dissertation on Sharia Sciences on the topic: "The Role of Zakat in Resolving Social Problems". In 1977, he initiated the creation of the "Sharia and Islamic Studies" faculty at Qatar University, and then established the Center for the Study of Syrah and Sunnah.
He conducted the television program "Sharia and Life" ("Al-Sharia Wal-Hayat") on the channel "Al-Jazeera".
Worked in the Committee for Religious Affairs under the Ministry of the Egyptian Waqf. In 1991, he was appointed chairman of the Scientific Council of the Islamic University in Algiers.
In 1997 he created the website Islam Online.
The author of more than 120 monographs on Islam.
Sheikh Al-Qardawi heads the supervisory boards of the Islamic Bank of Qatar and the Islamic Bank of Faisal in Bahrain.
In 2004, Al-Qardawi issued a fatwa that justifies the killing of all American citizens in Iraq, including civilians.
In the early 2000's. Al-Qardawi said that the war in Chechnya is a jihad, and Muslims should help "the Chechen Mujahideen". In 2010, after meetings with representatives of the Chechen clergy, the sheikh changed his position, urging the militants to abandon the armed struggle with the Russian authorities.
In October 2012, in connection with the support of Russia, the Syrian President Bashar Assad declared Russia "the enemy of Islam" and called on Muslim countries to resist it. In April 2013, he refused to participate in the inter-religious conference in Doha because of the presence of Jews on it.
In May 2013 Al-Qardawi arrived in Palestine, where he stated that the State of Israel had no right to exist.
Al-Qardawi is currently wanted by the Attorney-General's Office of the Arab Republic of Egypt on charges of "treason, religious extremism and links to terrorist groups".
Mohammed Badi - since January 16, 2010 head of the Egyptian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Badi was born on August 7, 1943 in the city of El Mahalla al-Kubra. In 1965, he received a degree in veterinary medicine at Cairo University. In the same year he was arrested along with the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood - Sayyed Kutbu and sentenced to 15 years in prison. In 1974, he was amnestied by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat among other members of the ITO. After his release, Badi taught at various universities in Egypt, and then became a professor at the University of Beni-Sueif.
Since 1996, Badi was a member of the organization's steering bureau.
In 1998, he was imprisoned, where he spent seventy-five days for participating in the activities of the Islamist organization.
In 2010 Badi was headed by the ITO "Muslim Brotherhood", replacing Muhammad Mahdi Akef in this post.
During the presidency of Mursi, Mohammed Badi had a significant influence on the adoption of personnel decisions in the country's leadership.
On July 3, 2013, Egyptian President Mursi was overthrown in a military coup. The new authorities banned Badi and his deputy from traveling anywhere, and later he was arrested.
During the clashes in Cairo on August 16, 2013, the son of Badi-Ammar was killed.
In April 2014 Badi was sentenced to death, but the death penalty was replaced by life imprisonment.
In connection with the isolation of Badi in detention centers, Mahmoud Ezzat was appointed acting head of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Badi takes a tough anti-Israeli stance. Thus, in July 2012, during his weekly sermon, Badi said that the Israelis are "rapists" in Jerusalem and called on all Muslims to "jihad" against Israel.
In October 2012, Badi said that "Jews dominate the earth, spreading corruption and shedding the blood of Muslims" and demanded that the Arab world abandon negotiations with Israel. In his opinion, Israel does not recognize international law and understands only the "language of power".
Muhammad Mursi - a member of the leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood, who until 2013 held the office of President of the Arab Republic of Egypt.
He was born in August 1951.
In 1975 he received a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering in the University of Cairo, and in 1978 a master's degree in engineering.
Mursi joined the Muslim Brotherhood while studying for a doctorate at the University of Southern California.
After receiving his doctorate in 1982, he taught as an assistant professor at the University of Northridge, California until 1985. Then he returned to Egypt to continue his teaching activities.
The political growth of Mursi in the ranks of the Muslim Brotherhood began in the early 2000s. During the same period, he was a member of the Egyptian parliament and headed the parliamentary faction of the Muslim Brotherhood in it.
Mursi was arrested in 2006, as well as in the days of the January 2011 uprising, after which the leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood appointed Mursi chairman of the newly formed "Freedom and Justice Party".
In April 2012, he was selected as a presidential candidate from the Muslim Brotherhood. In the second round of the presidential elections, Mursi won, having received the support of 51.73% of voters.
Khayrat Al-Shater is the first deputy (assistant) leader of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Hayrat Al-Shater was born on May 4, 1950.
He received a bachelor's degree in construction, and a master's degree in construction management.
He entered the ranks of the Muslim Brotherhood in 1974 and quickly became one of the influential members of the organization. Being a businessman, he took part in financing the organization, and as a result, had the opportunity to influence the adoption of managerial decisions.
In the early 1990s, he was arrested and kept in prison until 1993. From 1995 to 2000, he served a sentence for his participation in the activities of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Since 2004, Al-Shater was the second deputy head of the organization - Mahdi Akef and played an important role in the negotiations with the Egyptian authorities on the participation of the Muslim Brotherhood in the 2005 parliamentary elections.
In 2007, Al-Shater was again arrested and sentenced to seven years for terrorism and money laundering for terrorist purposes.
In March 2011, after the overthrow of the regime of Hosni Mubarak, Al-Shater was released.
After the January uprising in 2011, Al-Shater became one of the most influential members of the Muslim Brotherhood.
They tried to nominate Al-Shater as a candidate from the "Muslim Brotherhood" in the 2012 presidential election, however, the criminal record was prevented by the conviction.
Mahmoud Gozlan is an influential member of the Muslim Brotherhood, a member of the Grand Council.
Gozlan is a member of the leadership of the brotherhood and served as secretary of the group until his arrest in February 2002.
Gozlan is considered one of the most radical leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood because of his uncompromising attitude toward Israel.
Mahmoud Ezzat is the deputy head of the Muslim Brotherhood, was a key figure in the coordination of activities between the management of the ITO and its affiliated "Party of Freedom and Justice".
Ezzat was born August 13, 1944 by profession - a doctor. He holds a doctorate in medicine and is vice-president of the Islamic Medical Association.
In 1998 he graduated from the Institute of Islamic Studies.
In the leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood since 1981.
Has a reputation as a consistent and staunch fighter for the Islamic values. He was repeatedly arrested and imprisoned.
Mahmoud Hussein is a secretary and member of the "Great Council" of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Mahmoud Hussein was born on July 16, 1947 in Jaffa. In 1984 he graduated from the University of Iowa (USA).
Hussein became an active member of the Muslim Brotherhood in the late 1970s. while studying at the graduate school of the University of Iowa. During this period, he met with other future leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood - Mohammed Mursi and Mohammed Ali Bishr, as well as the leader of Hamas, Musa Abu Marzouk.
Returning to Egypt, he became a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Assiut.
Hussein was repeatedly arrested. Served imprisonment between 1995 and 1998.
9.6. The most famous terrorist actions
In February 1982, the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood organized an armed rebellion in the cities of Khama and Homs with demands for the resignation of H. Assad and the dissolution of the Baath Party.
"The Muslim Brotherhood" organized the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in 1981 during the parade in honor of the anniversary of the 1973 Arab-Israeli war. As a result of a successful assassination attempt on the Egyptian president, 7 people were killed, including A. Sadat himself, 28 people were injured.
The most resonant terrorist act of the Muslim Brotherhood was the so-called "massacre in Luxor" in 1997, which resulted in the death of 58 foreign tourists and 17 injured.
SECTION 10. INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS-EXTREMISTIC ASSOCIATION "JAMAAT TABLIERS"
The international Sunni religious missionary organization focused on the propagation of radical Islam, intolerance of other religious movements and a comprehensive Islamization of society.
In accordance with the Decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of May 7, 2009 No. GKPI09-525, the international religious association Tablighi Jamaat was recognized as extremist and prohibited on the territory of the Russian Federation.
10.1. The history of the association
International Religious-Extremist Association (hereinafter referred to as the IREA) Tablighi Jamaat was established in 1927 in the Mevat area, near the city of Delhi (India). The founder and ideologist of the said association is the theologian of the deobandic trend of Islam Muhammad Ilyas Kandehlevi (1885-1944).
M.I. Kandehlevi believed that many Muslims are only formally Muslims, since they do not read the Koran and do not go to the mosque. The main slogan of the union was proclaimed the instruction of Sunni Muslims for the path of "true" Islam.
Fig. 11. Symbols of the international religious extremist association "Tablighi Jamaat"
Tablighi Jamaat ("TJ") stands out among other Islamist structures the idea that a religious mission ("daava") is accessible to every Muslim, and not to a narrow circle of cleric scholars.
According to Kandehlevi, traveling missionaries - TJ members - must preach Islam. After teaching the basics of the Qur'an, they were united in small groups (jamaats) and sent for sermons to the urban and rural areas. This method proved effective, and in the 1940s. the movement of the TJ members spread throughout India. In 1944, shortly before the death of Ilyas Muhammad, a son, Muhammad Yusuf, was appointed in his place, who made a lot of efforts for the growth of the movement.
After the partition of British India, numerous supporters of the movement appeared in Pakistan and Bangladesh. In the 1960s. "TJ" began to receive substantial financial support from the World Muslim League, sponsored by Saudi Arabia. In 1978, the World Muslim League financed the construction of the "TJ" mosque in Dewsbury (Great Britain), which eventually became the European center of the movement and its headquarters on the continent.
Gradually the Tablighi Jamaat association acquired an international character. At present, representatives of TJ work in 150 countries, and the organization's headquarters operate in 120 countries. Members of the association operate in all mosques and Islamic centers of Western Europe.
You can talk about the specific specialization of some regional offices. Thus, the planning and coordination office is located in the Mecca mosque in India, and the training and education center is located in Tanji, the Republic of Bangladesh.
10.2. The purpose and objectives of the association
The aim of the "TJ" is to spread the "true" values of "pure" Islam for the introduction of sharia norms into public life and the construction of the caliphate.
The objectives of the association:
- propaganda of the Islamic faith;
- religious and ideological treatment of supporters with an orientation to unite all Muslims and their influence on political processes;
- the seizure of political power and the transformation of socio-political institutions according to the canons of the Islamic theocratic state (caliphate).
The analysis of the IREA activity makes it possible to distinguish three main stages of achieving the tasks facing the TJ members.
At the first stage - the maximum number of supporters is involved in the activities of the association, new cells are formed, and religious literature is distributed.
At the second stage, it is planned to create favorable conditions for further actions to destabilize the socio-political situation in the host country.
During the implementation of the third stage, with the support of an ideologically "processed" population, it is planned to move to active actions of civil disobedience and organization of mass riots in order to split the society and forcibly seize power.
10.3. Organization and tactics of the IREA activity.
The head of the "TJ" is the amir, who is elected for life, to which the heads of the regional structural departments are subordinate. To solve the most important issues, councils of elders (shura) are convened.
"TJ" positions itself as an organization of preachers of Islam. Gathering in groups (jamaats) for 10 - 12 people in Asian states and for 3 - 5 people in other countries, members of the association are sent to various regions of the world, where they preach their ideology. Missionaries are trained in courses of varying duration - from 3, 10, 20 and 40 days to 4 months. Each member of "TJ" should give 3 days a month and 40 days a year of this missionary activity.
Members of the association try not to overload the person with excessive knowledge about Islam, they start talking about the importance of daily prayer and the need for everyone to adhere to Islamic traditions. If a person shows an interest in knowledge of Islam, his beliefs are consolidated.
In each group there is a leader (amir), a preacher and a guide responsible for the life of the jamaat. The cells maintain a strict discipline and strict submission to the leader.
"TJ" includes a number of organizations, such as Tabligh and Daava, Daava, Daavat-e Islami, Jamaat-i Tablig, Jamiat-Tablig, Jamaat ul Tablig, Jamaat-e Islami Tablig and others. Representatives of these structures avoid contact with the media and do not publish materials about their activities, members of the association or its financial and logistical support.
The ideology of "TJ" is closely related to the Deobandian doctrine of Islam, which is distinguished by radicalism and intolerance towards other forms of doctrine, including Shiism and based on the belief that Islam should supplant all other religions.
The religious doctrine of the "TJ" includes the following components:
1. attitude to protect "true" values and norms of early Islam;
2. denial of any innovations ("bidha") in the field of dogma and Islamic law, which have no direct justification in the Qur'an and hadith;
3. upholding the principle of monotheism ("tawhid");
4. introduction of Shariah norms into the life of society and the state;
5. overthrow of secular regimes in Muslim countries;
6. creation of a single world Islamic state - "caliphate";
7. conduct of "jihad" against all "infidels", including Muslims - followers of other Islamic branches and schools;
8. use of terror and other violent methods to achieve the set goals.
It is important to note that there is a significant similarity in the ideology and structural structure of the ITO Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami and the "Tablighi Jamaat" IREA. Both organizations are very numerous and declare their commitment to Sunnism. However, Tablighi Jamaat, unlike Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami, unites Muslims not as the immediate task, but as a natural process of Islamization of the world. Thus, Tablighi Jamaat does not put in the near term more specific tasks to create a unified political structure of Muslims. The strategy of spreading and introducing the ideology of this association in other countries, including Russia, is the conflict-free functioning "in a new place" with political and state structures, law enforcement agencies, representatives of other religions (confessions).
Unlike the emissaries of Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami, who are actively involved in the social and political processes of the host country, representatives of Tablighi Jamaat act latently. At the same time, it can be predicted that under certain conditions, for example, when a significant number of supporters of the association are reached, TJ cells are actively involved in socio-political and other processes, as it has repeatedly happened in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and other countries.
On the territory of the Russian Federation since the early 1990s law enforcement agencies noted the episodic appearance of emissaries IREA "TJ". Since 1997, their activities in our country have become purposeful. The preachers of the movement concentrated their efforts on replacing the traditional Islam of the Hanafi madhhab for deobandic interpretation of Islam, recruiting new followers for further approval of their influence on Russian Muslims, collecting diverse information about the domestic political situation in Russia and monitoring the sensitivity of Russian Muslims to the ideas of TJ.
In the mid-2000s, the "TJ" missionaries were already organized by al-Qaida leaders to Russia to spread religious extremist ideology. Active organizational and propaganda activities of "TJ" in the territory of the Russian Federation deserved the high appreciation of Osama bin Laden.
A feature of the functioning of the movement in question is the provision of assistance to terrorist organizations. At the same time, radical-minded individuals - the supporters of the "TJ" join the ranks of terrorist organizations and bandit formations. Thus, supporters of TJ have repeatedly seized weapons, improvised explosive devices and other means of destruction.
Participants of foreign missionary groups, as a rule, are a month and a half in Pakistan, where the recruitment of groups. After the completion of the trip, they return to Pakistan for a report on the preaching work done.
At present, TJ cells are already established and functioning in many states. The tasks of cell members include organization of "preaching" activities at the place of permanent and temporary residence, comprehensive provision of emissaries and mission groups coming from abroad to conduct Daavat ("call-up"), as well as mass distribution and production of audio and video - and printed materials "TJ".
The social composition of the supporters of the "TJ" is not uniform. The organization includes persons with criminal history who are not engaged in certain work activities or who are temporarily unemployed, as well as representatives of various professions - entrepreneurs, athletes, teachers, doctors, workers, employees, etc.
Russian supporters of the TJ, as a rule, did not conceal their belonging to unification. However, after the adoption by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of Decision No. GKPI09-525 of 7 May 2009 on the recognition of the international religious association Tablighi Jamaat as extremist and its prohibition on the territory of the Russian Federation, the tabloids operating in Russia increased the measures of conspiracy. So, for example, the words "TJ members", "TJ membersts jamaat", "dagwat" ("dagwat" was replaced by the notion "ziarat", for example "making a trip with the purpose of visiting relatives and relatives, friends") were excluded from use.
The main forms and methods of the activities of the "TJ" are:
1. dissemination of religious literature, which forms the ideological basis of the association;
2. use of methods of severe psychological impact on the members of cells "TJ";
3. speculative use of Islamic dogma, the cultivation of the idea of the necessity of conducting a "jihad" aimed at combating "infidels";
4. sending IREA recruits to Pakistan for further in-depth religious and ideological processing, as well as receiving combat training and accompanying involvement in terrorist activities.
10.4. Interaction with terrorist structures
Members of the TJ form a resource base and recruit militants for the benefit of such ITO as the Muslim Brotherhood, Al Daawa, Lashkar-i-Taiba, Al-Qaida and the Taliban.
According to experts, a significant part of Islamic extremists are representatives of the "TJ". Many people from the CARs before leaving for the regions of terrorist activity to take part in the fighting on the side of the ITO were engaged in conducting the "Islamic call" in the ranks of the "TJ members".
The organization has an extensive database of combatants on the side of the logistics in Afghanistan, Algeria, Kashmir, Bosnia, Kosovo. In the fall of 1999, TJ deployed a recruiting center in Karachi, Pakistan, to send volunteers (local citizens and Afghan refugees) to participate in military operations in the North Caucasus as part of illegal armed groups. For the same purpose, a branch of TJ was operating in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
"TJ" is active in North Africa, where it became one of four groups that took part in the creation of the extremist "Islamic Salvation Front." The Moroccan authorities accused the movement of the fact that radicals from Al-Salafiya al-Jihadiya in their leaflets urged their members to join legal Islamic organizations, such as TJ, in order to hide and at the same time influence the policies of such organizations.
10.5. The most famous terrorist actions
Members of TJ were accused of involvement in the commission of terrorist acts in Great Britain, France, Spain, Uzbekistan and India, harboring terrorists and assisting them in the movement.
Supporters of TJ were associated with the terrorist cells Portland Seven (2002) and The Six from Buffalo (2002) in the United States, participants in a conspiracy to blow up aircraft over the Atlantic (2006), terrorist attacks in London on July 7 2005, attempts to blow up cars on June 29, 2007 in London and a terrorist attack on June 30, 2007 at the airport in Glasgow.
Recent years have been characterized by an increasing trend of extremist manifestations, the formation of stable centers of terrorist threat in regions with a complex socio-political situation (the Balkans, the Middle East, North Africa, the Afghan-Pakistani zone, etc.). Terrorist activity acquired features of an international character and created a serious threat to international stability. Large-scale terrorist acts, regularly committed in the Middle East, in Europe, the United States and Russia, indicate further escalation of the terrorist threat emanating from international terrorist organizations.
Structural links of terrorist organizations, accomplices networks and sympathizers of terrorists categories of citizens are in all regions and in most states of the world. This is due to the objectively existing intra-state contradictions between the interests of various groups of the population, the presence of inter-ethnic and inter-confessional conflicts, and the attempts of certain foreign states (their alliances) to artificially inspire and support terrorist activity, create hotbeds of tension in strategically important regions of the world for changing unwanted political regimes, pressure on political leadership, the implementation of targeted interference in internal affairs and restrictions on the sovereignty of states.
Despite the popularity in a certain social environment, attempts to use slogans of social justice and the struggle for human rights, any terrorist organization, no matter how "attractive" ideas it is not covered up with, is doomed. No terrorist structures will ever be able to fully replace the state, which today, even taking into account the shortcomings of the state system, important social and economic problems and corruption, is the most optimal institution for organizing public life.
The fatal error of terrorist groups of any orientation lies in their unpreparedness (inability) to accept the basic postulate of the modern civilized social system, which is that the only promising option for state and social transformations is the constitutional way of reforming political and legal institutions through parliamentary procedures, legal promotion of public initiatives, a referendum process and the renewal of state power during the free, democratic and transparent elections.
The structures examined in the directory are recognized as terrorist and extremist not by all international organizations and leading states. This circumstance is due to the peculiarities of socio-political, ethno-confessional conjuncture of individual states, tactical attitudes of leading political forces, "double" standards in antiterrorist policy and interstate relations.
The existing disunity of the actions of the world community is skillfully used by the leaders of the ITO, allowing them to preserve the possibility of ideological provision, financial and resource recharge of their activities, maneuvering mercenaries - terrorists on the scale of individual states and regions. The absence of a united front in the fight against the ITO, the hidden support of individual states by terrorist groups (extremist associations) and attempts to use them in their own geopolitical interests make it very difficult to fight against international terrorism.
International legal acts:
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Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism (approved by the UN General Assembly Resolution 49/60 of December 9, 1994) // Collection "Current International Law". T. 3.
International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (New York, December 15, 1997) (ratified by Federal Law No. 19-FZ of February 13, 2001) // SZ RF. 2001. No. 35. Art. 3513.
International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (New York, 9 December 1999) (ratified by Federal Law No. 88-FZ of 10 July 2002) // SZ RF. 2003. № 12. Art. 1059.
European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism (Strasbourg, 27 January 1977) (ratified by Federal Law No. 121-FZ of August 7, 2000) // SZ RF. 2003. № 3. Art. 202.
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Protocol on Amendments to the European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism (Strasbourg, 15 May 2003) (ratified by Federal Law No. 123-FZ of 27 July 2006).
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Federal Law of March 6, 2006 No. 35-FZ "On Counteracting Terrorism" / / Ros. gas. 2006. The 10th of March.
The Law of Azerbaijan Republic of June 18, 1999, No. 687-IQ "On Combating Terrorism" // SPS "Soyuzpravominform - Legislation of CIS Countries"
Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan No. 27-VQ of December 4, 2015 "On Combating Religious Extremism" / / SPS "Soyuzpravominform - Legislation of the CIS Countries"
Law of the Republic of Armenia of April 19, 2005 No. ЗР-79 "On Combating Terrorism" // SPS "Soyuzpravominform - legislation of the CIS countries".
Law of the Republic of Belarus of January 4, 2007 No. 203-3 "On Countering Extremism" // SPS "Soyuzpravominform - legislation of the CIS countries".
Law of the Republic of Belarus of January 3, 2002 No. 203-3 "On Combating Terrorism" // SPS "Soyuzpravominform - legislation of the CIS countries".
Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of February 18, 2005 No. 31-III of the SAM "On Countering Extremism" // SPS "Soyuzpravominform - Legislation of the CIS Countries".
Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 476-I of July 13, 1999 "On Counteracting Terrorism" // SPS "Soyuzpravominform - legislation of the CIS countries".
Law of the Kyrgyz Republic No. 150 of August 17, 2005 "On Counteracting Extremist Activities" // SPS "Soyuzpravinform - Legislation of the CIS Countries".
Law of the Kyrgyz Republic of November 8, 2006 No. 178 "On Counteracting Terrorism" // SPS "Soyuzpravominform - legislation of the CIS countries".
Law of the Republic of Moldova of February 21, 2003 No. 54-XV "On Counteracting Extremist Activity" // SPS "Soyuzpravominform - Legislation of the CIS Countries".
Law of the Republic of Moldova of 12 October 2001 No. 539-XV "On Combating Terrorism" // SPS "Soyuzpravominform - legislation of the CIS countries".
Law of the Republic of Tajikistan of December 8, 2003, No. 69 "On Combating Extremism" // SPS "Soyuzpravominform - legislation of the CIS countries".
Law of the Republic of Tajikistan of November 16, 1999 No. 846 "On Combating Terrorism" // SPS "Soyuzpravominform - legislation of the CIS countries".
Decision of the Supreme Court of the Kyrgyz Republic of May 14, 2003 "On recognition of Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami as an extremist organization and prohibition of its activities on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic." // ATP "Garant".
Decision of the European Court of Human Rights in the case of Kasymakhunov and Saybaltalov v. Russia (Strasbourg, March 14, 2013). // Bulletin of the European Court of Human Rights. The Russian edition. 2014. № 2.
Decision of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan of March 15, 2005 "On recognition of the organization" Jamaat of the Mujahideen of Central Asia "as a terrorist and prohibition of its activities in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan." // ATP "Garant".
Decision of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Tajikistan of 30 March 2006 on the recognition of the international religious association Tablighi Jamaat as a terrorist organization and the prohibition of its activities on the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan. // ATP "Garant".
Decision of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Tajikistan of March 11, 2008 "On recognition of Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami as an extremist organization" // ATP "Garant".
Decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of 14 February 2003 on the recognition of Hizb-ut-Tahrir al-Islami as a terrorist organization and the prohibition of its activities on the territory of the Russian Federation. // ATP "Garant".
Decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of June 2, 2006 No. GKPI06-531 "On Recognizing the Organizations of Jund Al-Sham and Islamic Jihad-Jamaat Mujahideen as Terrorist and Banning Their Activity on the Territory of the Russian Federation." // ATP "Garant".
Decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of May 7, 2009 No. GKPI09-525 "On recognition of the international religious association Tablighi Jamaat as extremist and prohibition of its activities on the territory of the Russian Federation." // ATP "Garant".
Decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of December 29, 2014 No. AKPI P. 14-1424 "On Recognition of International Organizations as Terrorist and Prohibition of Their Activity on the Territory of the Russian Federation". // ATP "Garant".
Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of June 28, 2011 No. 11 "On Judicial Practice in Criminal Cases on Crimes of an Extremist Direction" // Ros. gas. 2011. 4th of July.
Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of February 9, 2012 No. 1 "On Some Issues of Judicial Practice in Criminal Cases on Crimes of a Terrorist Attitude" // Ros. gas. 2012. On 17 February.
Decision of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of November 3, 2016 No. 41 "On Amendments to Decisions of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of February 9, 2012 No. 1" On Certain Issues of Judicial Practice in Criminal Cases on Crimes of a Terrorist Attitude "and dated 28 June 2011 No. 11 "On Judicial Practice in Criminal Cases on Crimes of an Extremist Direction" // Ros. gas. 2016. 16 November.
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The dictionary of the basic concepts
Aqeed (Arabic "persuasion") is Islamic doctrine.
Amal (Arab "work, work") is a combat operation.
Amir (emir) (Arabic "ruler") is a leader, commander, ruler.
Bayat (Arab "agreement") is an oath to the Caliph.
Beit ul-mal is the box office of the Muslims.
Bida is an innovation in the field of dogma and Islamic law, which has no justification in the Quran and the Sunnah.
Wakf is a charity.
Dar al-Islam (Arab "abode of obedience") is a territory governed by Muslims based on Sharia.
Dar al-Harb (Arab "abode of war") is the territory of war with the infidels.
Jamaat (Arabic "society, community") is a community, society, group.
Jahil is a barbarian, a savage.
Jihad (Arabic "effort") is 1) The Holy War; 2) any action aimed at supporting Islam.
Iman is a faith.
Istishhadiya is self-sacrifice in the path of jihad.
Katiba is a fighting detachment.
Kafirs (the Arab "unbeliever") are unfaithful.
Kufr (Arab "disbelief") is a disbelief.
Maghrib (Arab "west") are the states of North Africa, located west of Egypt (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania).
Macruh is not desirable.
Muaskar is a training camp for training terrorists.
Mubah is not allowed.
Mujahid (mujahid) is a man who is at war for the sake of Islam.
Mumin (the Arab "believer, orthodox") is a believer.
The Munafiks are hypocrites (so the prophet Mohammed called his adversaries).
Murtadas are the renegades from Islam, apostates.
Muhajirs are Muslims who, for the sake of saving faith, move to other countries.
Mushriks are pagans.
Mushrif is the leader of one or several Hizb-i groups.
Murid (the Arab "disciple") is a follower.
Rafid (rafidit) (Arabic "rejecting") is the nickname of the Shiites.
Ribat has two main meanings: 1) protection of the borders of Islamic lands, service at outposts; 2) the constant realization of righteous deeds.
Saraf is a collector and money foreman in the alternative money transfer system "hawala".
Tagut is a false deification, worship apart from Allah.
Takfir is a charge of unbelief.
Tawhid (Arabic: "monotheism") is monotheism.
Farz is a must.
Fatwa (fatwa) (Arabic "opinion") is a theological and legal decision.
Fitna (the Arabian "troubled") is a turmoil, chaos.
Khavala (hundi, chop) is an illegal alternative system of remittances that are not controlled by fiscal and credit and financial organizations, used to quickly transfer money to the necessary regions of the world. This system is actively used for the secret financing of international terrorist organizations.
Hulk is a group (cell) of Hizb-ut-Tahrir al-Islami.
Hizbiy (Hizbi) is a supporter of Hizb-ut-Tahrir al-Islami.
Halal is permitted.
Haram is forbidden.
Shabb is a member of Hizb-ut-Tahrir al-Islami.
Shabab is the "Hizbi" community.
Sham (Arab. "Syria") is the region of the Middle East, consisting of the territories of modern Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan and Palestine.
Shaheed is a martyr who died in jihad.
Shirk (Arabic "paganism") is a misinterpretation of the Muslim religion.
Shikr is polytheism.
Shura is a council for resolving cases permitted by Sharia.
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
Mawlawi Khaybatullah Akhundzada
Ata Abu al-Rushta
Abu Yusuf Sharki
APZ, MENA, Southeast Asia
Creation of the Islamic Emirate in Syria
Creation of the Sharia State in Asia
Creation of the Sharia State in APL
Create a Sharia state in Central Asian
Tactics' Thousand bites. "
Careful planning. Multiple simultaneous DTA.
Use of suicide bombers (including children), UAVs with explosives
Mass formation of "sleeping" cells. Individual jihad with unconventional means of terror. Mass executions of the hostages.
Raid tactics; positional defense in settlements. Mass executions of the hostages.
Tactics of guerrilla warfare.
The combination of guerrilla warfare and DTA.
Active recruitment of supporters. Systematic penetration into the authorities, the media, law enforcement agencies.
The implementation of DTA in conjunction with the active promotion of jihadist ideas in the CAR countries.
Conducting of targeted DTA in relation to diplomatic and other official representations of foreign countries.
Combination of methods of legal political struggle with DTA.
Formation of a network of conspirative cells. Aiding and recruiting supporters in the ranks of the ITO.
KSA, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Jordan
KSA, Turkey, Pakistan
KSA, Jordan, Pakistan, Turkey, Lebanon
KSA, Qatar, Jordan
Relations with special services
Support of special services of Pakistan
(ISI), Iraq, Iran ( IRGC).
Support for US intelligence, Turkey (MIT),
the General Intelligence Service KSA, MIT Turkey, Israeli military intelligence, Qatar's
support of Pakistan intelligence services (ISI) before entering into the structure of "IG"
Support Pakistan's secret service
support Pakistan's intelligence agencies and Iranian
support of special services the UK and the US
Support of Pakistan's special services
Allies (affiliated structures) of
Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula; "Al-Qaeda" in the countries of the Islamic Maghreb "; "Al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent";
"Al-Qaeda in Palestine";
"Al-Qaida in Somalia";
"Jemaah Islamiya"; "The Abu Sayaf Group"; "Boko Haram." Coordination of the terrorist activities of the IG with the cells of Al-Qaeda in Libya and Algeria.
"The Islamic Front"; "The army of conquest";
Jund Al-Sham; "Sukur ash-Sham", etc.
The Taliban, HT; "Muslim Brotherhood"
"Tehreek Taliban-i-Pakistan"; "Islamic State of Waziristan"
"Grouping of Haqqani"
"Tablighi Jamaat"; "Muslim Brotherhood"
Al-Qaeda in the Mesopotamia;
"Front of Islamic Action";
"Federation of Islamic Communities of Europe";
"The Party of Freedom and Justice"
Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami